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Revue Pamiatky a múzeá - Summary 1/2009

zverejnené: 3. mája 2011
aktualizované: 21. apríla 2012

Jana Kalinayová-Bartová
Musical instruments on a wall painting in Martinček
Rare medieval wall paintings were revealed and restored in the Roman-Catholic Church of St. Martin in Martinček (the Ružomberok district) a few years ago. This discovery was to beg several questions concerning the paintings’ iconography, dating, origin and inspiration sources. Historians, whose focus is on medieval music, have also shown interest in the painting, as its oldest layer, situated in the church’s presbytery, depicts figures with musical instruments which have hitherto never been noticed in Slovakia . In his article the author looks at an organological identification of the pictured musical instruments, their significance in the painting’s iconographic programme and the problem of their relation to period music practice. 
Six figures with musical instruments decorate the upper half of the horizontally divided wall-painting in the presbytery, while the lower part is filled with figures of the twelve apostles. The apostles and the musicians are similarly grouped in accordance with the architecture of the room – they are painted in pairs on the northern, eastern and southern walls of the presbytery. Windows divide the pair on the southern and eastern wall. A late insensitive window adjustment on the southern wall has meant that only a fragment now remains of the musician sitting to the left of the window, which makes it extremely difficult to identify the musical instrument.
All pictured instruments are representative of that group of string instruments which in the Middle Ages expressed the humility of prayer, the celebration of God, the harmony between man and God and served as a medium to healing. Apart from the biblical zither, they were to include a whole range of newer instruments – the lyre, along with its younger version the “rota”, and the triangular instrument possibly known as the psalterium whose archaic image copies the gothic harp. Other depicted string instruments are the cetula (or citola, or cethera), the fidula, a medieval predecessor of the violin, and the ala, or ala bohemica (a type of psalterium shaped like a bird’s wing). 
When it comes to music historiography and historical organology, the depictions of the Martinček instruments ought not to be considered as proof of their having been used in medieval music in our territory, particularly if they had used to visualise religious theme. In Slovakia, only the fidula, psalterium and harp, the instruments commonly used in Europe, are accompanied by additional iconographic documents and reports from written sources.

Dušan Buran
The late gothic pulpit in Kežmarok
The four stone embossments originally from the former pulpit in the Parish church of the Holy Cross in the Spiš town Kežmarok (germ. Kesmark) have been almost forgotten over the last few decades. Their absence in the art historical consciousness is a result of their inaccessibility, since they have been deposited in the parish house with limited public inspection. No surprise that this has had an impact on their physical condition too.
The subject of the embossments is the four church fathers and St Helene. They have been executed in course of the final phase of the church’s building, together with two southern portals, which are dated into both 1486 and 1498 respectively. Especially the younger one, with a figurative program, shows such a similarity that the pulpit and the portal’s architectural details (in fact, more than the sculptures) may be assumed as being produced in an identical workshop. The most progressive parts of their decorations include the so called “Astwerk” (germ.), a sort of vegetal embellishment that is formed from branches rather than geometrical fials and/or ribs. In the embossments, the branches growing from miniature diamond pedestals develop into rich curling ornamented baldachins over the figures. If we assume that the pulpit was created some time around 1500, the relief decoration would be an example of rather early reception of the Southern German, or Saxon late gothic in the medieval Hungarian Kingdom.
The way of mediation between those regions and the Spiš County will be subject of further research. The town of Kežmarok became in the last third of the 15th century property of the powerful magnates family Zapolya represented even in one of the coat of arms in the smaller portal of the church 1486. It remains questionable, if it was Stephen Zapolya († 1499) or his widow Hedwig from Teschen († 1521) who commissioned the decorations of the younger porch 1498 and the pulpit. Such assumption seems plausible, though with no evidence in the known written sources yet.

Radoslav Ragač
The festive days of Kremnica Franciscans
In spite of the alternating successes of the several wars that she led, Maria Theresa’s forty year long reign proved to be the time when Hungary was to effectively heal its wounds caused by the long-term battles against the Turks and when this heretofore stagnant country was to start the process of gradual modernisation. The central Slovak mining area had also begun to thrive at this time. An even larger region was to be opened for various benefactor activities and redevelopment. The influx of plenty of money in an established town environment, along with a recatholicized spirit, fostered by the activities of religious orders and a baroque form of spirituality, were together to provide a breeding ground for the organisation of various sacral and secular festivities.  
One of the sources for studying this phenomenon is the yet unknown ornamented manuscript Historia domus of the Franciscan priory in Kremnica, from 1759 – 1773, which is stored in the Slovak National Archives. The Kremnica’s Franciscan friars belonged to begging orders and the priory formed part of the stricter, Salvatorian province of the Hungarian Franciscans. Nevertheless, they actively joined the religious and (in part at least) the secular festivities. The history of the priory is a rich source of information about the festive days not only of the Kremnica Franciscans but also of the town of Kremnica. In 1759, the building of the Loretan Chapel was finished in the priory and a described manuscript was launched on the occasion. We have selected several samples of interesting events that happened in Kremnica at that time. The diarist of the great part of the history of Kremnica, as well as a busy observer of its life, was the representative of the town’s Franciscans, Cyril Machacz. The provincial canonry named him as the priory historian ((Proto-Historicus) on May 20, 1759 in the Gyöngyös monastery. It is not yet known who added the chronicle’s other records.
The visit of future emperors Joseph II, his brother archduke Leopold II and prince Albert of Saxony, which started on July 26, 1764, was undoubtedly the highlight of the secular festivities in the studied period. Prior to that, cleaning and renovation works took place throughout Kremnica, including the Franciscan priory – the Franciscans, for instance, renovated the arch of triumph. The chronicler describes in detail the arrival of the delegation and its welcome by uniformed riders and foot soldiers, one half of which were the townsmen and the other the representatives of the mining chamber. The Reeve, Anton Körmendy, dressed in ceremonial Hungarian clothes, handed them the town keys. The Franciscans also attended the welcome, standing on the square at the coin factory. Ceremonial services as well as a procession were held at the parish church throughout the following two days.

Tomáš Janura
The yeowomen of Liptov in the 18th century
Information about the private lives of country noblewomen in the 18th century can be gleaned through written sources of a personal and official nature. A little used source of information so far has been the court’s files on Hungarian counties, which have been split into several independent groups, including inquisitions. An objection to abuses was delivered at a general (or particular county’s) congregation on behalf of a concrete nobleman, noblewoman or their representative, which got recorded. Then, the county’s officers (serving and sworn associates) investigated the protest’s justification. They then recorded down the interrogation with the witnesses of the event that was the subject of the argument. These testimonies were the basis for the law-suit which was subsequently held at the closest county court.
From the interrogations preserved in the Liptov county fund, 180 files refer to yeowomen. These include in addition the legal conditions for the administration activities of the yeowomen, which were determined by Hungarian laws. Based on those, only aristocratic widows were freed from the power of their husbands and fathers; marriage liberated them from their fathers’ power and the husbands’ dominance over their wives stopped with their deaths. The widows could thus freely decide on managing their own as well as their husbands’ property. The managing possibilities of widows were vast and fully comparable with those of yeomen, who, based on their wealth, employed a certain number of employers. Only children could restrict a widow’s management activities. If she had none, or she only had daughters, she could remain the head of the property till her death. If she had sons, before long, she would have to pass the husband’s assets onto them. They in consequence were bound to take care of her.

Simona Jurčová
The Trnava Sharpshooters Society
The Trnava Sharpshooters Society is one of the oldest societies in Trnava. Archive documents chronicle its existence and activities from 1752 to 1891. Representative entrance papers from 1860 even record the year of 1750 as the date of the society’s foundation. The society itself however traces its origin back to the Middle Ages, and in 1838 celebrated 600 years together with Trnava’s anniversary of becoming an independent royal town. Unfortunately, archive documents have not supported these implications. The Trnava sharpshooters brought together rich burghers and they were supported by local aristocrats. They followed the guidelines approved by the monarch in 1838. From their members they elected the society’s management committee who administrated the correspondence, accounts and archive. They had their own emblem, flag (white-green with a black target in the middle) and stamp. New members received a commemorative document of the society’s membership (two have been preserved from the 1830s and 1860s). All members regularly paid the annual fee (Jahres Schilling). They kept documentation on the finances (account diary) and shooting (shooting protocols). They helped with the preparation of the big town’s events, and participated at official town and church festivities. Apart from the public activities, the sharpshooters regularly practised their shooting and entered competitions. 
Preserved correspondence, documents, account books, shooting protocols, shooters’ lists, uniform parts, information on gun range from the period press and the painted targets that decorated the interior of the society’s gun ranges, all speak volumes about the history of the Trnava Sharpshooters Society in the Western-Slovak Museum.

Peter Keresteš
Appel Family – the administration clerks of the Hungarian aristocracy 
The process of the modernisation of Hungarian agriculture in the 19th century had been predominantly laid on the shoulders of administration clerks, who used their expertise to manage feudal estates. It would invariably prove futile to search for any information on these “engineers of the future” in biographical and historical books, or other lexicons of Slovakia. The family of Appels were significant pioneers in agricultural modernisation in our territory in the first half of the 19th century. They used to work at the estate of the aristocratic family of Hunyady from Mojmírovce near Nitra.
The activity of Karl Appel (1773 – 1839),a native of Ludwigsburg in Württembersk and graduate of the economy institute in Stuttgart, is directly connected with his employer and friend, Count J. A. S. Hunyady (1773 – 1822). The intensive interest of this educated Hungarian aristocrat in agriculture is justified by his appointment as a full member of the Agricultural Society in Vienna on May 7, 1808. Hunyady was the first Hungarian aristocrat who put into practice the thoughts of the reformer Count Széchény on the breeding of horses for sport and the organisation of horse races as per the English fashion. 
In 1797, Count Hunyady appointed K. Appel as the administration director of his estates. Since then, the fates of the Appels had been permanently attached to Hungary. K. Appel rationalized and centralised the estate’s administration, set up consistent accounting, reorganised the family’s archive, and established a central office of the estate with a secretary at its head, along with an accounting department. The Mojmírovce estate led by example. In vegetable production, he cultivated agricultural land and changed boggy areas to fertile soils. He was one of the pioneers in growing arable crops, mainly potatoes and sugar beet. Clover and snail-clover were the first technical plants he cultivated. He also proved to be a pioneer-constructor; improving a new type of plough. 
 Appel’s priority was livestock production and breeding. He was most successful in raising new breeds of sheep in Slovakia, the wool of which was exported to foreign markets. He also had remarkable successes in horse breeding; his name being connected with the founding of several excellent stud farms in south-western Slovakia. When it comes to raising beef cattle, K. Appel helped to expand the Alpine breed in Slovakia. He is also credited for organising the first public horse race (May 22, 1814) in what was then Hungary. For his efforts in developing Hungarian agriculture, the monarch Ferdinand I granted K. Appel and his descendants an aristocratic title on May 9, 1823. His three sons were among the first academic experts in agriculture in Slovakia, and one of them, Gustav Adolf Josef (1804 – 1903), native of Mojmírovce, was his full-value successor in the field.

Eva Križanová
The Church of St. George in Likavka
The Roman-Catholic Church of St. George in Likavka is one of those remarkable buildings, the origin of which dates to the historical movements of the 19th century, which could well serve as a manifestation of Slovak national architecture. They were built by architects, who had been among the first to study at the newly founded national universities since the 1850s, but whose works remain unrecognised in modern historiography.
Blažej Felix Bulla (1852 – 1919), an open-minded intellectual educated at Prague’s Polytechnic School by Professor Josef Zítek, the designer of the National Theatre, built the Church of St. George in Likavka (Ružomberok district). He admired traditional folk art and Slavic ideas. He was also influenced by his activity in the national association Detvan. After his return to Slovakia, he worked for several years in Ružomberok, where he founded an architectural studio. Between 1878 and 1883 he designed several secular as well as sacral buildings there, which still exist in the Orava and Liptov regions. In 1880 he worked out the project of the new parish church in Likavka in the Ružomberok studio.
A great inspiration for B. F. Bulla was the wooden traditional architecture and its individual construction and artistic elements. The European historic construction movements nevertheless remained the main source. He was best familiar with the Renaissance, and in that spirit he carried out probably his most famous work – the National House in Martin. When building the Likavka church he used his good knowledge of early-gothic rural churches in Liptov (Ludrová, Martinček) and by imitating the form as well as the medieval construction techniques, he confused many historians of architecture who dated the church’s origin down to the 13th century. During the church renovation, shortly before its centenary anniversary in 1977, significant alterations, both internal and external, were made from Bulla’s conception, which demonstrated an unprofessional approach, despite (or maybe because of) the fact that the church was not included on the state list of monuments. Its architecture was treated as an uninteresting expression of Romanticism without any historical and artistic value. It looks like we still owe a lot to our history. 

Jiří Janošík
Early medieval bells and other findings from Bojná
Only a very few monuments relating to the period of its peoples’ Christianisation in the 8th – 9th centuries are available to Slovakia. Apart from a unique set of six gilded plaques from the mobile altar in Bojná (the Topoľčany district in western Slovakia), there is an equally significant sacral item – the Bojná bell. It is only the second preserved Christian bell of the mentioned type from the 8th – 9th century; the oldest cast bronze bell in continental Europe is stored in the Lateran collection of Vatican museums in Rome. The exceptionality of its finding at the hill-fort Valy near Bojná is highlighted all the more by the fact that three bronze bell fractions from two other bells and an iron clapper from the fourth bell were also found there; bell fragments from the mentioned period had only been found in two localities in Germany – in Vreden (fractions from four bells) and Oldenburg (a bronze fragment and an iron clapper from one bell).
The Christian bell from the 8th – 9th century from Bojná is 21.5 cm tall and the clapper is 17 cm long. This rare, lone bronze bell from this period in Central Europe was discovered in 1997; in the inner part of the north-western wall of the Bojná I hill-fort. The bell is uniquely preserved despite the 11 holes in its body, which were made during casting. After cleaning, the colour is seen to be dark-green, almost grey, with a light-green patina inside. The edges of the central eye and both arms of the bell’s crown are treated only roughly. On the top of the body’s inner wall is a sealed iron suspension eye. The wall of the 16-cm tall body is between 2 to 6 mm thick, the result of imperfect casting. The bell weights 2.18 kg and the clapper 200 grams. The iron clapper is of a conical shape. Remains of a leather suspension strap have been preserved on the clapper’s narrowed and bent end, as well as on the inside of the suspension eye.   
Parameters of the three other Bojná bells: fragment 1 from bell No 2 measures 9 x 5,6 cm and is 5 –7 mm thick; the bell’s assumed height is 23 –25 cm. Fragments 2 and 3 evidently come from one bell (bell No 3); they measure 8,7 x 3,8 and 5,6 x 3,3 cm, and both are 3.5 mm thick. The bell’s assumed height is 19 – 21 cm. The bell’s clapper, which is also of conical shape, like the one of the preserved bell, is 13.5 cm long; this proves that it belongs to another bell (bell No 4), which is thought to be 12.5 cm tall without the crown and around 16 cm with the crown.

Branislav Lesák – Andrej Vrtel
Archaeological research in the Apponyi Palace in Bratislava
The Palace situated on a narrow street at 1 Radničná in Bratislava Old Town was built by the architect F. A.  Hillebrandt for Count Juraj Apponyi in 1761 – 1762. The project utilized an area created by two joined medieval lots. During the late reconstruction of the palace, archaeologists of the City Institute for the Preservation of Monuments carried out a research from November 2005 until October 2007, which gradually mapped all the places touched by the construction activity.
The Apponyi Palace is a cultural monument registered as number 189 in the Central List of Cultural Heritage of Slovakia’s Monuments Board. It is part of a historical block bordered by Uršulínska, Kostolná and Laurinská streets. In terms of historic topography, it is a block with a privileged position in Bratislava’s historical core for at least two reasons. It joins an original fortified courtyard of the Reeve Jakub with a residential tower from the 13th century in the area of the Old Town Hall, and for over a hundred years it had been rumoured that a brick Roman building existed at the place of the tenement house at 5 Laurinská and Primatial Palace.
The archaeological research has brought new information on the late La Tene Period (2nd half of the 2nd century BC), as an oppidum presumably of the Celtic Boya tribe was found there. Interesting discoveries included a residential object (464 x 300 cm) with pile construction, a two-chamber pottery kiln, and a right-angled object (123 x 130 cm) – probably a well, in which several iron items, ceramics and a number of animal bones were found. A second well with a right-angled ground plan (140 x 150 cm) was discovered at the courtyard of the Apponyi Palace. Four fragments of quern-stones for grinding grain were found during the exploration of the listed objects. The archaeological research did not confirm the presence of a Roman station in the locality; similarly the proofs of its population in the 10th and 11th centuries are only fragmental. Based on the findings, the direct medieval settlement took place around the 2nd half of the 13th century; right along with the urbanization process, when the area of today’s 1 Radničná Street was turned into two medieval lots.

Ivo Štassel
New information about the Apponyi Palace in Bratislava
The condition of the built-up area of the former Apponyi site is no longer authentic, as radical construction changes took place there in the second half of the 19th and first half of the 20th century. The site had a rectangular shape at the time of the palace’s origin. Its current restricted shape is due to the demolition of the palace’s courtyard wings in the aforementioned period, when a connecting wing leading to the Primatial Palace was built. The current built-up area of the site adherent to the Apponyi Palace has the shape of the letter L. It has two wings: the street one and the south – courtyard one. The northern and eastern part of the site is built up to the Primatial Palace with the connecting wing. Two wings of the palace and two wings of the connecting addition enclose the trapezoid courtyard, which has an entrance from Radničná Street via an asymmetrically situated portal.
The researches carried out thus far revealed that the oldest construction stage of the palace is from the Middle Ages and dates from before 1500. The findings, based on the tax books of the 15th century, concerned two burgher’s houses with various owners. The second construction stage took place in the 18th century, when Count Juraj Apponyi reconstructed the older houses into a baroque palace in 1761 – 1762. The third stage dates to the beginning of the 20th century (1911), when two courtyard wings were demolished due to the construction of the town hall’s connecting wing. The last stage encompasses all the interventions of the 20th century.
The City Institute for the Preservation of Monuments carried out two new monument researches of the Apponyi Palace between 2005 and 2007. The first, archaeological one, revealed the medieval built-up area on the site (see previous article). The second was the architectural-historical and archival-historical research of the construction that helped to better understand the younger development of the 18th to 20th century. This research did not confirm the medieval constructions of the original two burgher’s houses from the 14th century, as the new solvent owner, Count Nádasdy initiated the block’s complete reconstruction after 1715, turning it into an ample palace building. This was later adjusted by a new owner, Count Apponyi, who lived there 10 years after the purchase in 1750, before he radically changed it.  
Credible archive resources are available for dating the rococo reconstruction in 1761 and 1762. The city bought the Apponyi Palace in 1867 with the intention of enlarging the office and representation rooms of the town hall. The whole northern wing of the courtyard was pulled down and a council hall was built there according to the project of Ignác Feigler Jr. from 1867. During the next reconstruction in 1910 – 1913 the hall was pulled down. In 1867 the building ceased to function as an independent element of the city’s built-up area and became part of the town hall’s complex, first with an administrative, then with a museum function (the City Museum) that has remained until today.

Marta Janovíčková
Apponyi Palace and its new expositions
The gate of the reconstructed Apponyi Palace with the new expositions of the Bratislava City Museum symbolically opened on April 24, 2008, during the Bratislava Days festival. The building’s plan from 1904 already marked the rooms at ground floor as the rooms of the City Museum, founded in 1868. They were probably workrooms and closed-to-public collections. The museum opened an exposition in the representation halls on the first floor in 1926, a picture gallery on the second floor in 1930, and the Bratislava Viticulture Museum at the ground floor a year later. The first floor, connected to the Old Town Hall, was used for exposition purposes in the following decades. The second initially housed workrooms, later a depositary, and one could also find there the Regional Library. An extensive reconstruction of the palace took place in 2004 – 2008. When it finished, Bratislava City Museum started the installing of expositions there and established a study depositary in the attic. 
The palace has become an independent exposition entity without any communication link with the Old Town Hall. Its purpose copied the nature of the initial palace rooms and the museum’s endeavour was to use the most of its authentic interiors. The Museum of Viticulture, which has long been one of the basic presentations of the Bratislava City Museum, is situated on the ground floor and in the basement. The ground floor presents the history of a vine growing and of viticulture in general in Bratislava. The current exposition provided a larger space to two of the most significant Bratislava wine firms Hubert J. E. and Palugyay. The exposition continues in the basement with the presentation of harvest and grape processing.  
Two other two floors house the Museum of Historical Interiors. The conception was brought to fruition thanks to the collection fund of the museum rendering settings of period interiors. The other reason was the fact that Bratislava lacked such an exposition. The justification of the new conception was confirmed by the discovery of original wall paints in the individual rooms, which created an authentic space for the furniture and accessories of a burgher’s interior. The palace’s attic will become a study depositary of the museum accessible to researchers and the general public as soon as it is finished.

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