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Revue Pamiatky a múzeá – Summary 4/2008

Elena Kurincová
The citizen and his
identity in the 20th century
The history of Slovakia and of the
entire Central European region, particularly in the first half of the 20th
century, indicates that it was possible both to be born and spend one’s life in
one town, whilst at the same time undergoing a complex naturalization procedure.
Personal archives of individuals and of families – diaries, correspondence,
photo albums, personal documents and even personal testimonies (oral history) –
make it possible to reconstruct in detail a “small history” within the troubled
phases of great history. The author of the article shows how political events
could play havoc with individual identity, citing the example of Anton (Antal)
Kammerhofer born in 1903, a citizen of today’s city of Bratislava, formerly
Pressburg or Pozsony.
A. Kammerhofer belonged to Bratislava’s middle
class, which, after the establishment of Czecho-Slovakia, brought economic
continuity and also established value orientation within the new state. This was
manifested in the day-to-day way and quality of life (living standards,
education, leisure time activities). He came from a merchant’s family, graduated
from the schools of graphics (1923 – 1926), and worked as a typesetter in the
book printing company Universum, later in the printing house Ľudotypia and from
1941 in Slovenská grafia.
Typographers were considered to be labour
aristocracy and they were famed for their organisational abilities. The
certificate of completion of primary school in 1914 serves as proof of original
identity, where in addition to the Roman-Catholic religion, there is mention of
the Hungarian and German languages which the child speaks. Between 1914 and 1919
he attended the Hungarian State Burgher’s Boys’ School. The data in the family
book, launched on the occasion of marriage in September 1930, and the following
registration of the birth of their son, confirm the family inclination towards
Hungarian nationality. He was granted Czechoslovak citizenship in 1929, followed
by his wife and son in 1934. The proclamation of the Slovak Republic was another
cause of concern for A. Kammerhofer, who registered as a German national in the
census of 1940. He acquired Slovak nationality in October 1942 on the basis of
the law adjusting state citizenship between the Slovak Republic and the German
Empire. By the end of the Second World War, Hungarians and Germans in Bratislava
experienced difficult times – the constitutional decree of the President of
theRepublic, No 33/1945 declared the abolition of Czechoslovak state citizenship
for the citizens of German and Hungarian nationality. Confirmation of Slovak
nationality for his wife in August 1948 saved the Kammerhofer family from
definite displacement after the communist coup in February 1948. Kammerhofer
got back his Czechoslovak state nationality in February 1950. His life in fact
is a perfect example of the gradual disappearance of the specific multinational
identity of the old Bratislava citizens in the first half of the 20th century.

Viera Obuchová – Jana
Bratislava’s Patrónka – from factory to social institution

The current construction boom in residential and administrative
buildings in Bratislava was to have negative consequences, such as the abolition
of industrial complexes, which after 1989 no longer served their original
purpose. It has therefore been of the utmost importance to hasten the
documentation and evaluation of the historically valuable parts of the factories
from the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries and to suggest that
they be declared cultural monuments.
An interesting historical factory
complex in Bratislava is Patrónka (the ammunition factory) at Lamačská cesta
(Lamač Road). The authors present it on the basis of previously unknown and
unpublished archive sources and field surveys. The Roth brothers (Georg Roth et
Comp.) founded Patrónka (Patronenfabrik, tölténygyár) in 1870 and built it as a
branch company of their Viennese firm in 1871 – 1875. The factory was situated
near the railway station at Červený most (Red Bridge) in the premises of the
former 6th mill on the Vydrica watercourse. The famed Bratislava construction
firm of the Feigler family built the oldest factories in the 1870s. The firm was
uniquely efficient and versatile: it worked out projects as well as implemented
them. Industrial buildings with a characteristic exterior formed a great part of
its business.
The factory development started at the end of the 19th and the
beginning of the 20th century. In 1890 it had 740 employees, but by 1914 the
number had reached 3,000, which reflected the war boom in armament production.
After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic (1918) Patrónka separated from
its mother firm and at the end of the 1920s became an affiliated branch of the
ammunition manufactory in Brno. At that time it saw the largest expansion of
both its production and territory. Between 1932 and 1935 the factory’s 16
outlets employed 500 workers, who daily produced a million cartridges largely
intended for export, mainly to Belgium, England and Australia. The production
was gradually dismantled and relocated inside the country, in Považská Bystrica.
The Institute for the Physically Disabled bought the empty Patrónka area in
1937, gradually adjusting the various buildings to serve their purposes. By the
end of the Second World War, when the institute was temporarily evacuated to a
district outside Bratislava, the area played an infamous role as an assembly
camp for Jews. In April 1945 the former Patrónka was bombed. In the summer of
1945 the Institute returned there and gradually renewed its activity. The
adaptation of buildings continued to take place until the1970s. The Institute
was to change its name to ROSA and today provides complex services to children,
youths and adults with physical as well as combined disabilities.

Zuzana Zvarová – Veronika
The garden of the Koch sanatorium
Koch sanatorium and garden at 27 Partizánska street in Bratislava was built in
1929 – 1930 on land originally serving as several private gardens. The
sanatorium with its functional and operational design was based on the personal
requirements of Doctor Karol Koch, who had been the associate professor and head
of the Orthopaedic Clinic at Comenius University since 1933. Dušan Jurkovič,
Jindřich Merganc and Otmar Klimeš designed the project; Jozef Mišák did the
planting. The architectural concept of the garden design was assigned to J.
Merganec. At that time, the Czech print media named the building the most modern
sanatorium in the whole of Czechoslovakia. The garden, designed as a
rehabilitation-relaxation evergreen area, also played a great part in that high
evaluation. It was built simultaneously or shortly after the sanatorium and in
the summer of 1932 it was fully completed.
The ground plan of the
sanatorium’s four-storied building is designed in the shape of the letter ‘V’.
It is situated at the bottom of a hilly terrain in such a way that the windows
of the patients’ rooms look out into the garden. The designers were wary of the
rooms not being overheated by the sun during hot summer days and the importance
of the patients having a view from their beds into the sunlit greenery. The
garden was designed as a safe site for the sanatorium patients, taking into
respect the existing terrain configuration and also the plant material of the
original gardens. Original rudiments of small garden architecture (pool,
benches, fountains, sculptures) revived the whole area and the communications
were so arranged that a patient could choose a circular walk based on his/her
health condition.
The garden was divided into two parts – the sanatorium
entrance area and the garden itself, which is separated from the entrance by a
retaining wall behind the sanatorium (on the southern and western side). The
“Sun bath”, a smaller meadow used for sunbathing, used to be a part of it. From
the south, one would approach a pool, which had to be easily accessible and at
the same time isolate patients from the surroundings. Paths built along contour
lines, small sculptures and original fencing completed the area.
garden of Koch’s sanatorium was to be a valuable park area from the 1930s. Its
design, but above all its function as a garden for the patients of a private
sanatorium, makes it today the only preserved garden of its type in Slovakia. It
would be fully possible to renovate the whole of the garden as well as the
individual architectural elements.

Kristína Zvedelová – Ivan Gojdič – Rastislav
Swimming pool Eva in Piešťany
After the foundation
of the Czechoslovak Republic (1918), the ideas formulated by the Civil
Educational Physical Training Movement Sokol (Falcon) were to reach Slovakia.
This influenced the building of by then almost unknown swimming pools of various
kinds and sizes. The most complex building of this kind was the combined beach
thermal swimming pool Eva in Piešťany with open and covered pools, which at that
time was referred to as the “beach”.
History of the Piešťany spa and its
development in the 20th century is tightly connected with the Winter family.
Jewish businessman Alexander Winter rented the spa in 1889 from the then owners,
the noble family of Erdődy. Later, he founded the Alexander Winter and Sons
Company. After the First World War, the spa remained in the hands of the Winter
family, who prepared investment plans for building the spa’s infrastructure. A
new, so-called Colonnade Bridge, built according to the project of architect
Emil Belluš, was opened in 1933. Around that time, the Winters started to think
about building a new beach pool. During planning, in 1934, they took into
account the suitable climatic conditions of the locality, the efficiency of
thermal springs and the concept of dividing the spa island into two functionally
differentiated parts. The southern one was to serve medical procedures (mud and
radioactive spas) while the northern one was designed as a relaxation area,
mainly for the recreation of patients and their relatives. Bratislava architects
Alexander Szőnyi and Franz Wimmer were assigned to do the project. Prague
engineer Václav Kolátor, a former swimmer and expert in the building of covered
and open pools, significantly influenced the swimming pool’s construction. He
projected both pools for the Eva swimming pool, with the outdoor one also meant
for swimming competitions.
The covered pool in the north dominates the
building in its “U” shape. Ground service buildings joined it from the east and
west. An open 50-metre pool was situated along the middle axis of the main
building. The third – children’s circle pool used to be in the area’s
north-eastern corner. To the west of the covered pool and entrance corridor was
a restaurant, which consisted of two divided rooms – a closed one, connected to
the covered pool and an open one, directed south to the outer pool. At the end
of the western wing was a music pavilion and dance floor.
After the Piešťany
spa was nationalised and the embankment around the river Váh built (1948),
architect A. Szőnyi worked out plans for the enlargement of the area. However,
they never got carried out and various reconstructions made after the 1960s were
to leave a strong mark on the Eva swimming pool.
Nevertheless, the swimming
pool is a significant representative of interwar architecture awaiting
reconstruction of its original qualities while respecting the current technical
norms and requirements of local as well as foreign visitors.

Jozef Csütörtöky
The oldest celestial
globe in Slovakia
Collections in the Danube Museum in Komárno hide a
celestial globe from the beginning of the 17th century, which has been under
reconstruction since 2007. Translation of the Latin texts on cartouches
identified Willem Janszoon Blaeu as the creator of the globe in 1603, in
Amsterdam. The Komárno globe is considered to be the oldest famous globe in
The wooden stand and the ring with calendar of the globe have been
preserved intact and are in their original condition. The globe with a diameter
of 34 cm had been secured in wooden renaissance construction fashion with a
brass ring with calendar, which, itself unfortunately has not been preserved.
This later caused minor defects of graphic print in the area of the southern
The ball was of paper mass construction. In the centre is a
wooden construction with metal clips to anchor the ring with calendar. The ball
was wrapped in a thin layer of paper and plaster, perfectly smoothed and with
paper segments glued to its surface. The wooden ring with calendar is unbroken,
but the graphics glued onto it are damaged here and there. The Renaissance
graphics (copperplate) consist of 14 segments: the individual parts, so called
caps, represented the north and south poles. Mythological figures and various
items and animals depicting star images are finely coloured by hand. Between the
constellations of Eridanus, Phoenix and Cetus, in an oval frame, sits the
portrait of Tycho de Brahe. The globe features 48 constellations according to
Ptolemaeus (aka Ptolemy), four new constellations Antinous, Coma Berenices,
Columba Noe and El Cruzero Hispanis, 51 stars and 10 star groups, as well as 12
new constellations of the southern hemisphere. Based on the dedication
cartouche, Blaeu devoted this globe to Prince Moric of Orange, at that time
governor of the Netherlands. The Komárno globe was created in Blaeu’s third
edition of the celestial globe, in 1603. This globe was very popular and Blaeu’s
Amsterdam workshop had it published for almost half of the century. In the
second half of the 17th century, after selling its copper disc, various
publishers continued its production.
In the second part of the article, the
author elaborates on the circumstances which led W. J. Blaeu to create the first
celestial globes (1596/97, 1602, 1603). In the third part, he offers their
iconographic analysis, on the basis of which he assumes that Jacob de Gheyn II
was the metal engraver of the globes’ copper discs and that the celestial globe
of 1603, with a diameter of 32 centimetres, was created in like manner to the
modification of the copper disc of the first celestial globe of W. J. Blaeu. He
then confronts his results with two declarations by J. Warner (1971, 1982),
according to which the metal engraver of the copper disc of Blaeu’s first globe
was Jan Saenredam.

Jana Oršulová
Haller’s coat of arms on a
field gun
The SNM’s Archaeological Museum in Bratislava has
recently bought the barrel of a field cannon from the first half of the 18th
century. Despite any detailed information concerning its creator or owner, the
cannon, decorated with the coat of arms of the noble Haller family, not only
documents the development in weapons but also bears an original heraldic sign.

The oldest documents about the Hallers come from the end of the 12th and the
beginning of the 13th centuries from Nuremberg in Germany. The description of
the coat of arms of the family of Haller v. Hallerkeö (Hallerstein) was
published in Siebmacher’s collection of the Hungarian nobility’s coat of arms in
1528. The Hallers have used such a coat of arms since 1528 and practically
unchanged it has been published until today. The first of the Haller family to
enter the Hungarian monarchy was Ruprecht von Haller († 1504). The descendants
of the count’s branch of the Haller v. Hallerkeö (Hallerstein since March 28,
1528) family had lived in Transylvania in the 19th century. Štefan Heller (!) v.
Hallerstein acquired the title of Baron on April 1, 1699. The sons of Štefan v.
Haller – Gabriel, Ján and Ladislav – acquired the title of Count in Transylvania
on January 15, 1713. A certificate issued in Vienna on June 18, 1753 for Pavol
v. Haller, his brother Juraj and the children of the deceased brother František
documents the Transylvanian Count title. Count František Haller was the Ban of
Croatia between 1842 and 1845. Ruprecht Haller was the Buda bourgeois and
founder of the family branch living in Hungary and Transylvania.
on Hungarian counties from the beginning of the 20th century document the
Hallers’ presence in several municipalities of the Novohrad and Zemplín
counties, which today lie within the territory of Slovakia and Hungary. Several
Hallers chose a military career; in the troubled times of the 16th to the 18th
centuries they participated in the battles for the throne during anti-Hungarian
revolutions. One of them, Samuel Haller III († 1777), acquired the rank of
general (1741) and formed a foot regiment. Foot soldiers at that time also used
light artillery in battles. War historians think of the year of 1741 as a
breaking point. Several new regiments were founded during the war for Austrian
heritage, among them that of the Haller’s and Maria Theresa herself was to name
their captains and staff officers. The regiment also existed in the second half
of the 19th century, when it was called the 31st foot regiment. Only two
portraits relating to the Hallers family can be found in Slovak museums
(excluding the cannon in SNM), whilst a third portrait is in the Hungarian
National Gallery in Budapest.

Dušan Hovorka – Zdeněk Farkaš
Stone tools
in the collections of the SNM-Archaeological Museum
During the
hundreds of thousands of years of the Early (Palaeolithic) Stone Age, people
made tools of hard raw materials that specifically suited their purpose. A
significant milestone in the history of mankind was the Late Stone Age, when new
climatic conditions, aligned with the natural environment, enabled the
transition from a hunting-picking way of life to productive farming, which was
mainly based on the growing of highly nutritional agricultural crops and the
breeding of livestock. This revolutionary transformation in human history also
brought with it a number of momentous changes in the way of living, which led to
the invention of many specialised, by then unknown tools.
Tools for
processing wood, from the cutting down of trees through to their further rough
processing for various construction purposes and thence to fine joinery and
carving works, were needed from forest clearing and the establishment of fields,
to the building of more enduring wooden constructed municipalities along with
wooden interior furnishings, not least because of the surrounding natural
conditions. In an era which knew nothing of metals, stone proved yet again to be
the best material.
Harder rock, containing one or two tough minerals, was
needed for this purpose. Green spinel, rich in aluminium, was one of them. It
was to be found contained in stone artefacts at several Neolitithic/Eneolithic
locations, in the western part of the Trnava hills and the Záhorie region. The
stone “saws” were in the shape of a plate, which cut a line into the processed
material in the shape of the letter “V”. Roughly processed semi-finished
products, also found in archaeological excavations, were later adjusted to the
shape of a future hatchet. Sandstone grindstone was used for the purpose of
sharpening the tool’s final shape and in particular the blade.
Among the
oldest ground stone tools familiar to all from this culture of linear ceramics,
were the flat hatchets and wedges, whose length significantly exceeded their
width. These were often considered as “ungular”, since the cross section of the
body resembled a shoemaking hoof. They were virtually all-purpose tools for wood
processing. The ungular wedges also helped create the first so-called threshing
axes. The high body of the tool was drilled from the side to facilitate the
insertion of a wooden handle through the hole. This technological innovation
increased the stability of the tool’s attached parts as well as its overall
weight, which was particularly desirable when cutting down trees.
Slovak National Museum-Archaeological Museum in Bratislava currently houses a
large collection of ground stone industry from throughout the length and breadth
of Slovak territory. It enables the carrying out of detailed typological
analysis as well the search for potential sources of their primary materials.
Unfortunately, until today, it has been impossible to track down the original
mining and workshop areas of production. It therefore remains a permanent task
for the archaeological and geological terrain research team.

Peter Roth
The inheritance of the tsar’s
Professor Jozef Habowský was born in Coburg. After
studying in Germany and Canada, he began work at Windsor University in Ontario
and came to Slovakia in May 2003 to search his family roots. His parents came
from the Spiš region: father Jozef Habovský from Hranovnica and mother Júlia,
born Pekarčíková, from the nearby Spišské Bystré(at that time Kubachy). Jozef
Habovský was born in Hranovnica in 1894. There he met Bulgaria’s Tsar Ferdinand
Coburg and joined his services as a 15-year-old. He became the tsar’s
The Coburg family was a branch of the Saxony count family of
Vettin and ruled the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha principality. One of its members,
Ferdinand Juraj, in 1827 married Maria Antonia, who was the only daughter of
Anton Kohary, the then owner of the Čabraď, Muráň and Sitno estates, as well as
the iron businesses in the Horehronie region. In this way, the family acquired
in Slovakia not only properties but also vast hunting grounds. At the end of the
19th century, Filip Coburg, the older brother of Bulgaria’s Tsar Ferdinand, took
over the iron businesses. Ferdinand rented a villa, built by bishop Smrecsányi
at Hranovnica mountain lake in 1896. He also owned the Manor House at Pusté Pole
(in today’s cadastre of the Telgárt municipality), which Ferdinand Coburg built
in 1839. In 1909 he built another manor house above the municipalities of
Spišské Bystré a Kravany.
Bulgaria’s tsar often visited his manor houses
and the adjacent hunting grounds. He chose servants from the local
neighbourhood, who worked in his manor houses. Among them was Jozef Habovský,
who married Júlia Pekarčíková in 1919. Their two daughters Zuzana and Marta were
born in Hranovnica, in 1920 and 1926, respectively, and son Jozef was born in
Coburg in 1928. He was to work for the Bulgarian tsar until his death in 1948.
After that, he stayed in Coburg, where he worked for the local Museum of Natural
His son Jozef came to Hranovnica, because after the death of his
two sisters, he was the last descendant of the family. Since neither he nor his
wife Joyce had any children, he had to think of what to do with his father’s
heritage. The municipality of Hranovnica purchased the former blueprint workshop
of Elemír Montško from Podtatranské Museum in November 2002, with the intention
of turning it into a blueprint museum. The willingness of Jozef Habowský to
dedicate his father’s inheritance to the future museum, helped to make the local
museum larger and also to include the history and nature of the municipality, as
well as to introduce its notable citizens.

Tatiana Štefanovičová
The southern
extramural settlement of Bratislava castle
The southern area under
Bratislava castle has long since been of great significance for the development
of the city itself. The southern slope of the castle hill reaches to the left
bank of the Danube, where there used to be an important river crossing. Locals
had used the convenient location since the Late Stone Age, with traces of
settlement being known from the Late Bronze Age. Celts intensively settled there
and maybe Romans used it as well, when the Danube formed their border. Since the
arrival of Slavs, this location has been continually and intensively inhabited.
The southern slope has been covered with smaller basement buildings, often cut
into the rocky bed of the castle hill, since the 14th century. In the 16th and
17th centuries, this area was rebuilt in renaissance style. In the 18th century,
it formed an important part of the city also inhabited by the wealthy bourgeois,
so-called Teresienstadt.
When in 1968 part of Bratislava – Old Town was
demolished, due to the construction of the New Bridge, the destruction was to
also affect the southern slope of the castle hill. In the Vydrica district of
the city, which was destroyed, there were several architecturally precious
objects. Bushes quickly grew over this abandoned part of the city, which was to
become a refuge for asocial inhabitants, who devastated it even more. A new
construction is now being planned for the area under the castle. The Regional
Monument Board in Bratislava therefore allowed an archaeological research to
take place in the locality, which was carried out by the Slovak Archaeological
and Historical Institute – SAHI between June 1 and May 30, 2008.
researched locality with an area of 3,000 m2 (apart from the already researched
Water Tower) was divided into four exploration areas. The research mainly
uncovered findings from the Late Iron Age that belonged to the Celts. Their
oppidum from the 1st century BC is documented by an extra concentration of
pottery kilns as well as mass findings of coins. Small fractions of ceramics,
among them pieces of terra sigillata from the Roman period were found there,
suggesting a Roman settlement. Slavs also used the river crossing under the
castle hill in the 9th century. Exploration area No 1 uncovered the oldest
Slavic layer from the first half of the 9th century, or maybe even the end of
the 8th century. It contained remains of a large (10 m by 8 m) wooden
construction, which probably burnt down. Iron hrivnas, maybe axes, which could
be used as a means of payment, were found in the layer above. Upper layers
contained smaller residential and production objects, and several scattered
skeletons. An interesting finding is the vessel of probably Chazar origin, which
is characteristic for the period of the arrival of the Magyars (Hungarians) to
the Carpathian Basin.

Jozef Labuda – Martin Miňo
The town hall
chapel in Banská Štiavnica
Banská Štiavnica lies in the middle part
of central-Slovak mining town territory, and that fact was to predestine its
significant position in the former Hungarian kingdom. Its significance sprang
from rich deposits of rare and non-ferrous metals, mainly silver and copper,
which could also be found in the region of the town. In the 12th – 13th
centuries, Hungarian silver, largely coming from Banská Štiavnica, was already
being exported to Western Europe.
In the Late Middle Ages, monarchs granted
towns sufficient liberties and rights to guarantee them adequate freedom in
their self-administration. The town house or town hall became the town’s symbol.
The medieval town hall was a multi-purpose construction. Apart from council
meetings, it also held courts and celebrations. Inside were a town gunroom,
archive, prison and flat for the town’s employee. It kept the correct measures
and the town scale and there were rooms assigned as shop and taproom. The town
hall in principle was to sit on the main square in close contact with the most
important sacral building in the town. Banská Štiavnica is a rare example, where
the sacral building is an integral part of the town hall. This could be a German
influence, where town hall chapels appear in profusion since in the 14th –15th
Banská Štiavnica town hall was built in the 15th century, as a
one-storied construction with unclear disposition. The town hall Chapel of St.
Anna, which was the subject of archaeological research, was only known about
from written sources. The research proved its existence and at the same time
specified its localization. The chapel was added at the end of the 15th century
to the older core of the town hall from the north. A spinning staircase led from
the town hall to the chapel, which then continued up to the emporia. The
staircase was made of stone typical of Banská Štiavnica around 1500. The second
entrance to the chapel was from the street. It has remained preserved in the
northern wall and is bricked in.
The chapel had several stone decorations,
torsos of which have been preserved in the ruins. Chapel windows were covered
with circle targets from blown glass; the discovered fragments are clear,
eventually greenish. Three findings relate to the chapel’s function – a wooden
prayer desk, book fragment and measure fragment (etalon of a measure of length).
The Chapel of St. Anna ceased to exist in the 18th century, during the town
hall’s reconstruction.

Miroslav Čovan – Zuzana
Canonical House No 2 in Spišská
Canonical House No 2 is located next to the Lower Gate in
the northern part of Spišská Kapitula’s built-up area. Based on the preserved
architectural elements, it is considered to be one of the oldest parts of the
church settlement, dating to the second half of the 15th century. Two
renaissance phases from the end of the 16th and middle of the 17th century have
had a huge influence on the appearance of the building right until today. They
predestined today’s three-tract disposition and ground plan in the letter
The year of 1593, which is mentioned in the List of Monuments in
Slovakia (1968) on one of the portals that probably perished, could be
considered to be the year marking the end of the first renaissance
reconstruction, the most important construction modification in the building’s
history. The latest research also proves it. This phase gave origin to the
window bay on the southern façade, sgraffiti decoration on the south-eastern
corner (perished sgraffiti on the bay’s corner) and sundial.
The second,
late-renaissance phase of the Canonical House reconstruction, initiated by an
important individual in Spiš church history, Canon Martin Szolcsanyi (1619 –
1679), saw the installation of a relief panel with chronogram from 1657 onto the
house. Apart from the inscription, the authors also analysed the epigraphic
symbolism of the panel, which comes from the personal seal of M. Szolcsanyi.
They also managed to decode the Latin inscription painted on the sundial in two
rows, which was thought unreadable. Similarly, on the inscriptional panel, the
word “sun” (sol) is repeated in the text of the sundial. It points to a
noticeable intention to create a link between the name of the donator of the
construction, which finished in 1667, and the sun symbol.