Medieval wall paintings in Krušovce church
The Church of the Virgin Mary’s Conception in Krušovce was built in the era of the Árpáds. It is a simple one-nave building finished with a horseshoe-shaped presbytery. The preserved paintings in the attic, above the baroque vault, depict two Saint Nicolases and prophets. Peter Koreň led a restoration research in autumn 2014 that revealed new findings in the sanctuary, on the triumphal arch and in the nave. The main focus of the article is to relate these findings to the known wall paintings and analyse their style and iconography.
The oldest layer of frescos with the theme of the Crucifixion was found in fragments in the lower part of the north-eastern wall of the sanctuary. It was most probably made at the end of the Árpáds era. The largest layer in the church was the later painting on the sanctuary walls, victorious arch and western wall of the nave. This layer included the fragments of Maiestas Domini that adorned the former vault of the sanctuary and a row of apostles in the arcades of heavenly Jerusalem underneath (with the central figures of St. Peter and St. Paul). The lining of the triumphal arch was decorated with prophets. The banderols with majuscule texts in their hands helped to identify them by their names. The western side of the triumphal arch featured the complete figures of the prophets. The dual depiction of St. Nicholas on both sides of the arch, in its upper part, seems to catch the most attention. Unfortunately, we know of no appropriate analogy for this double image on such an exposed place. The author of this article explains this with the fact that Nicolas was the patron of the church in the Middle Ages. Saint Stanislaus was painted in the central part of the triumphal arch on the northern side and St. Dorothy on the southern side. Most crucial is the finding of St. Stanislaus, as we do not know of any other such example from the Hungarian Kingdom. The southern wall of the nave depicts a kneeling figure. The pleading gesture directed to the saints clearly suggests that it is the donor of the wall paintings. The paintings seem to be painted in the style known in older writing records as the Italian-Byzantine trend, which came to the then Hungary at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries.
The nave’s walls preserved paintings of another, third layer. Greater emphasis on realism and flexible forms date the paintings to the second half of the 14th century. This is also confirmed by the fresco’s theme. The fragments found so far reveal a monumental Saint-Ladislaus series that almost covered the entire length of the northern wall of the imposing nave. The triumph of the Hungarian army defeating the Cumans at the Battle of Kerlés (1068) was the most popular decoration themes in late medieval Hungarian churches. The western corner of the fresco depicts the figure of Saint Ladislaus on a grey horse, as he hurries to the battle against the Cumans. The image is the first scene of this series. Another characteristic scene that can be identified but is not as popular, is the one where the girl saved by Ladislaus holds a weapon in her hand. Even though later research emphasises the role of the royal court’s propaganda, the cycles of Saint Ladislaus were closely related to a feudal lord for whom this saint represented an example of the knight worth following. These cycles illustrate the knight culture that was held at the courts of medieval Hungary.
Rococo motifs on the 18th century Hutterite ceramics
Rococo is a term that defines the period from 1700 to 1789, during which it was divided into several time-scale and style sections. While in Western Europe, and mainly France it developed into a separate style next to classicism, in Central Europe it was part of the last phase of the baroque culture, characterised by classicistic features. Therefore, rococo is not fully considered a period style but rather an artistic opinion of the ruling aristocracy and upper class of bourgeoisie.
The rococo style also influenced the 18th century Hutterite-Slovak faience pottery in today’s Slovak territory. It is not only the shapes of the vessels that changed, but also the artistic style. Well-known as well as unknown painters introduced a new, freer approach to faience decoration next to the common figural and guild’s themes. The traditional jug-making at the end of the 18th century was partially inspired by the faience from Holíč and at the same time faience acquired some painting impulses from the traditional jug-making before it vanished.
One of the most expressive motifs of the rococo Hutterrite-Slovak faience from the period of 1850 to 1890 is rocaille, which evolved from a symmetrical classical shell ornament. Its various interpretations were captured in pattern books used by architects, artists and craftsmen. The collections of Slovak museums contain several examples of using this motif on the ceramics of the second half of the 18th century – from a wreath or semi-wreath that freely adjoined the local decorative features on a jug to a solo feature. The author demonstrates this on several specific items of the Hutterrite-Slovak faience from Veľké Leváre, Malacky, Dobrá Voda and Častá, as well as several other western Slovak centres. Since the beginning of the 19th century, this rococo decoration no longer appears on western Slovak faience.
Wandering books of Košice butchers
After the guilds ceased to exist in 1872, many of their items and documents entered the museum collections and archives. The wandering (travelling) books of the butcher’s journeymen in the collections of the Eastern-Slovak Museum in Košice are a trustworthy historical source with valuable information.
The journeymen in guilds followed specific regulations and unwritten customs. The journeyman was trained in a trade and it was assumed that after acquiring the necessary skills and fulfilling quite difficult requirements he would become a master. Right after the training, each journeyman had to go for the so-called wander (journey) to gain further experience and independence. Since the 19th century, with the regulation No 21 080 from 16th July 1816 a printed form for this purpose was issued, the so-called wandering book (Vándorkönyv, Vándor-Könyv or Vándorló könyv, Wanderbuch, Knižka Wandrovná or Pocestni knižka). In it, using the guild’s official stamps, the masters confirmed the journeymen their wandering travels, destination, workshop activity, duration of the employment and the behaviour of the apprentice. The master, who hired a journeyman into his workshop without such a book was punished. The Royal Hungarian Governor’s Council regulated these wanders with a set of rules, but the journeyman could choose the journey’s direction himself.
The wandering books contained the name and surname of the journeyman, his trade skills, physical appearance (height and build of the body, hair colour, forehead, eye colour, nose, mouth, lips, chin, overall face look and colour) and any specific marks, date and place of his birth or age, family status and religion. In the era with no photographs, the detailed description of a person was necessary. In the end of the description was the journeyman’s signature, which proved his literacy.
The collections in the Košice museum keep 14 original wandering books and one work book. The wandering books were printed by book publishers in the towns of Košice, Banská Bystrica, Rimavská Sobota, Buda, Pest and Vienna. They were written in Hungarian and German languages in the 19th century. The writing of the guild’s masters and notaries in these books is clearly readable. The average size of a wandering book was 117 x 182 mm and it usually had 32, 48 or 64 numbered pages. The work book had 80 pages. The recordings in these books were validated with guild’s stamps of red wax or paper imprints. The stamps were always issued at the end of the handwritten notes.
Mikuláš Konkoly-Thege and Palace of Astrophysics in Hurbanovo
In the centre of Hurbanovo stands an almost forgotten building that reminds us of the bygone glory of the world’s science in Slovakia at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. The locals know it as an “old maternity ward”, as it served this purpose for almost three decades. However, the building was ceremoniously opened on 28th June 1913 as the Palace of Astrophysics. It was part of the unique scientific area built by Miklós Konkoly-Thege (1842 – 1916), a philanthropist and poly-historian, who was a talented scientist and artist gifted with excellent social skills, a people’s man. The Palace of Astro-Physics was built to house the main scientific library in the area, which also hosted professional scientific events. Science labs were situated at the upper floor for monitoring meteorite showers.
Miklós Konkoly-Thege, the latter member of the Hungarian council who finished his law degree in Berlin in 1862 and received a law doctorate, had been interested in astronomy all his life. He visited the European observatories in Heidelberg, Göttingen, York, Greenwich, Paris and Brussels and in his leisure time, constructed scientific tools. He built a small ship and focussed on improving the safety of steam boats and steam locomotives. He was a famous personality in the world of science and had articles published in international scientific magazines. He was in contact with H. C. Vogel, A. Secchi, J. Z. F. Zölliner, G. Schiaparelli, E. Weiss and L. Weinek. Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt were also among his friends. Miklós started building the science complex in today’s Hurbanovo (formerly known as Stará Ďala in Slovak, Ógyalla or Ó-Gyalla in Hungarian, Altdala in German) in 1871. He kept expanding its tool equipment and science library’s collection. In 1890 – 1900 he directed the State Institute for Meteorology and the World’s Magnetism in Budapest. He helped to move this institute from Budapest to Hurbanovo. In 1899 he built the main science building on his premises with state funds. Along with the famous personalities of the science world, the ambassador of the Japanese kingdom Kiyowo Nakamura also attended its grand opening. Since he had no direct heirs (his two sons died at a young age), he dedicated all his property to the state in his last will from 1902. He received scientific and state accolades for his activity, as well as several medals for the photographs of the night sky. He was also given the world’s most prestigious prize in astronomy, when two newly discovered planets in the space were named after him (No 1445 Konkolya and No 1259 – Ó Gyalla).
The Palace of Astrophysics is currently busy with the preparation of a museum exposition of Miklós Konkoly-Thege in cooperation with the Slovak Academy of Sciences. After a complete renovation, the house will also represent the town of Hurbanovo.
Small sacral items in Domaňovce municipality
With their artistic, workmanship and architectural values, small sacral buildings form the identity of the position. They are the historical traces in the landscape. The municipality of Domaňovce, in the district of Levoča, is situated on the border of the Prešov and Košice self-governing regions. Based on the archival sources from 1656, the gothic Church of St. Stephen that sits in the municipality’s centre had a chapel adjoined to it, which was dedicated to Saints Cosmas and Damian.
When the Spiš region was hit by the reformation in the second half of the 16th century, the chapel ceased to exist in the mid 17th century.
The mentions of other small sacral buildings outside the church area in Domaňovce are only indirect. They are mentioned in the church property recordings from the 18th century as well as on historic maps of the last quarter of the 19th century as a mark of the cross position. Today, one can find three small masonry sacral constructions by the road, the so-called small chapels. One of them is in ruins.
Based on archival research, the author of the article identifies the dedication of the chapels to the Suffering Christ, Saint John of Nepomuk and Our Lady of Sorrows. Since the current legislation cannot safeguard the protection of these small sacral constructions, (as they are not classified as national cultural monuments), it appeals to concrete people to get engaged with the experts in the fields of art, archaeology, architecture, urbanism, landscape protection and monument conservation in order preserve them for future generations.
State Institute for Promoting Self-employments in Martin
The establishment of institutions for promoting self-employment that helped to support small and medium businesses or industries since the end of the 19th century had significantly helped to boost the development of trades in Austro-Hungary. They worked as non-governmental independent institutions, but the state substantially supported them.
Three strategic institutions for trades promotion were key in Czechoslovakia between the wars. The one in Prague worked for the Czech Republic, the one in Brno for Moravia and Silesia, and the institution in Martin (former Turčiansky Svätý Martin) focussed on Slovakia and Ruthenia. In Slovakia, the three strong self-employment centres originated in Martin, Košice, and chiefly in Bratislava. In the end it was decided to build the State Institute for Promoting Self-Employment in the centre of the Turiec region, in Martin. This was thanks to the town’s self-employment tradition, its central position and cultural significance.
The predecessor of the Martin’s institute was the Institute of State Service for Promoting Self-Employment established in January 1921. The government’s regulation from 1st February 1923 changed it to the State Institute for Promoting Self-Employment. The institute monitored technological progress and new scientific information in industry and trade through research, consultancy, trials, artistic-production activity and technological-didactic activity. The focus of the Institute’s work was mainly on professional education of the self-employed through lectures and courses.
Architect František Krupka from Bratislava designed the grand project for the institute. The two-storied administrative building dominated the large area. The western and eastern wings that adjoined it were connected through the northern tract. The large courtyard that was formed inside the area was turned into a garden. The building was completed in 1935. The machine equipment arrived the year later and the institute started its work.
The State Institute for Promoting Self-Employment in Martin worked under the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Self-Employment in Prague. Other 14 institutes on the territory of Czechoslovakia between the wars were built as regional and town institutions, some belonged to business chambers. The institute in Martin ceased to exist shortly before the middle of the 20th century. After that it housed the headquarters of large state companies. The building was declared a national cultural monument and is currently used for administration and storage. The reconstruction of the building and its area, which follows the period documentation, started in 2015.
Caverns of the Great War in Pressburg (today Bratislava)
The idea to build a military fortification in the area of today’s Bratislava goes back to the beginning of the 20th century. The concepts for its protection (sometimes incorrectly called the Pressburger Bruckenkopf, which relates to the inter-war fortification) were submitted to the Austro-Hungarian Ministry of War in 1902. But it was the worsening international political situation in 1911 that speeded up the planned defence system of Vienna. They chose the form of using the so-called head bridges in the towns of Krems, Tulln, Vienna, Bratislava, Komárno and Budapest.
In December 1913, the headquarters of the 5th corps of the Austro-Hungarian army submitted a general project for building the battle artillery fortifications to the War Ministry in Vienna. These, so-called caverns, were to be built in the hills of the Small Carpathians near Bratislava, in the line of Devínska Kobyla – Dúbravská Hlavica – Železná studnička – Kamzík. The caverns were a unique work of modern fortification construction engineering. Their building required qualified experts on military defensive constructions, as well as experts on artillery army, mining and geography. The caverns were built into the rocky massif of Dúbravská Hlavica, from the 23rd of August 1914 until the 1st of October 1915, and made of concrete and reinforced with steel. The man-made holes in this solid rocky massif were used to hide soldiers, horses, and field hospitals, stocks of material and field kitchens. In order to resist artillery attacks, their depth had to be from 7 to 14 metres, depending on the artillery ammunition.
In April 1916, the Ministry of War ordered the demolition of the fortification as well as the permanent caverns and the properties were returned to their original owners. At the end of the war, in 1918, these concrete hideways were removed if the property owners requested it, or given to the owners for free, or in some cases for a symbolic fee of 100 korunas.
The current construction-technical condition of these structures is stabilised. The plan for renovating some of these fortifications and opening them to the public was initiated on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War.
The Monument Boards of the Slovak Republic declared the structures Dúbravka 1, 2 and 3 national cultural monuments on the 14th of September 2013. The aim of the civic association History without Frontiers, which currently repairs bunkers, is to build an educational Path of the Great War, which would join all eight structures that have been documented so far. Originally, there should have been eleven of them.
Votive panel of Bartholomew Czottman
The local patrician and pharmacist Bartholomew Czottman (1473 – 1522) and his wife dedicated the ritual panel of Mettercia, Madonna with child and saints to the parish Church of St. Elisabeth in Košice in 1516. The late gothic panel painting with the dimensions of 123 by 82 cm is situated in the Chapel of Mettercia (former Chapel of the Annunciation to the Virgin Mary) on a neo-Gothic altar specially ordered for it by bishop Sigismund Bubics). There is no doubt that it was meant for a parish church, especially when regarding the town’s coat of arms on the painting. Its serious damage from the past reduced its authenticity as well as the chances of closer artistic-historical classification. The painting, with a few other relics of the Košice Cathedral of Saint Elisabeth, was transported to the Hungarian municipality of Hejce at the end of the Second World War. After its return to Košice, Mária Spoločníková restored it at the end of the 1940s. Ľubomír Cáp last restored the painting in 2015.
The painting depicts the donors adoring saints: Bartholomew Czottman and his wife Margaret kneeling and praying on a podium, facing each other. Behind the donor is his patron, St. Bartholomew. Margaret is accompanied by an angel. In the centre of the podium is a mortar, as a reference to the donor’s profession, and on the sides are the coats of arms of both donors. The stylized tendrils that grow out of the mortar, with the depicted Košice coat of arms, evoke the Tree of Life. The portrayed saints include St. Veronica, Hedwig, Catherine, Barbara, Margaret, Elisabeth, Helen, Otilia (Odilia), Rochus (Roch), Nicholas, Valentine, Wolfgang, Job, Pancras, Jodok (Judoc), Anthony the Hermit, Christopher, Erasmus, Fabian, Sebastian, Cosmas and Damian. The selection of 22 saints was most probably made by the donors.
There is no direct analogy to the Košice composition. However, there are several similar ritual panels. One example is the painting of senator John Hütter from Prešov with the Holy Family and St. John the Evangelist from around 1520 (Hungarian National Gallery in Budapest). Another is the painting Vir dolorum with its donor, which was attached to the 1510 altar from Hronský Beňadik (Museum of Christian Art in Esztergom) that no longer exists.
The panel of Bartholomew Czottman from Košice shows clear Western-European connections. The depiction of Mettercia and Madonna with Child on the same picture can be explained by the influence of images of St. Anna’s relations mainly from the Low Countries (La Lignée de Sainte Anne). The painting by Gerard David from 1490 – 1500 (Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon) is probably the most famous of them. Another example is the painting of Hans Holbein senior, on the outer sides of the wings of the former main altar of the Dominican church in Frankfurt (Städel Museum in Frankfurt) from 1501.
Based on the hand-writing, specific proportional and characteristic features, the Košice panel can be seen as a later work of the Master of panels of the St. Erasmus and Nicholas altar in Bardejov.
Painter Bohdana Klemensová (1849 – 1922)
Female painters played quite a significant role in the development of 19th century painting. This is mainly true in the thematic and portrait painting, as well as landscape painting, where they manifested their female instincts and connection with nature. Today, these artists enjoy more attention than it used to be in the past.
The talented Bohdana Klemensová, daughter of the famous Slovak painter Jozef Božetech Klemens, was “only” considered a successful drawer or painter of countryside and mythological themes. This is also due to her very fragmentally preserved work. In contrast to her father, she is not mentioned in any available international lexicons of artists, which is most probably because of her home artistic studies. The collections of the Literary Archive of the Slovak National Library only preserved one sketch of this artist, dated to 27th May 1868. The drawing was a sketch for a lithographic illustration for her father’s article about runic inscriptions on Velestúr in Kremnica hills.
The author of the article maps the life of Bohdana Klemensová based on archival research, from her birth on 20th November 1849 in the municipality of Vrbica near Liptovský Mikuláš, through her family stay in Prague and later in Žilina, to their move to Banská Bystrica, where her father started working as a teacher. Bohdana studied in 1873 – 1874 at the private institute for female occupations in Győr, with a German teaching language. Her teacher Antonia Žaludová came from the Czech Republic. She also received quality education at home.
In 1874, Bohdana started teaching at the girls’ local school in Plzeň. She was the member of the Czech Women’s Manufacturing Society and in 1864 – 1895 she was the guest and later a member of the significant American Club of Ladies in Prague. During the holiday visits at her parents, she used to visit the High Tatras and Šumava frequently and published her hiking experience in the Women’s Letters magazine and National News.
Since 1885, there is only fragmental information about Bohdana Klemensová. Her name occasionally appears in the Women’s Letters in relation to her charitable gifts to the Czech Women’s Manufacturing Society that shows her relatively good financial situation as a teacher. The last mention in a magazine comes from 1905. The only known older archival documents are the death certificate and announcement of a teacher’s death, as well as a brief information of her death on 20th November 1922 in National News.
Salt store in Prešov-Solivar
The records on salt springs near the town of Prešov date to the 13th and first half of the 14th century. They mention the Hungarian name of the locality, Sopotok or Soupatak. When the mine with stone salt opened in 1570 – 1572, two administrative centres of Soľná Baňa and Solivar were built around it. Soľná Baňa (translated as Salt Mine) was first mentioned as a municipality in 1673, but only acquired its independence in 1886. In 1960, the municipality joined Solivar. The area of today’s Solivar originally consisted of three independent municipalities – Soľná Baňa, Solivar and Šváby. In 1971, Solivar became a suburb of the Prešov town.
Solivar’s unique urban structure began to develop its today’s look during the time when the salt was extracted from the depths of the mine in the first half of the 18th century. Rows of houses for the miners and lords surrounded the area of Soľná Baňa in a regular square shape. The area was complete with its mining-works, constructions, salty springs and salt production.
The flooding of the mine on 22nd February 1752 tragically affected the development of salt mining. The negative impact it had on the salt manufacture and its employees lasted until the end of the 18th century. The factory was radically re-built and new constructions were erected after the decision was made to change the technology into salt cooking at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. The salt production in Soľná Baňa stopped on 16th August 1970. At the same time, the Solivar area in Soľná Baňa was declared a national cultural monument under the administration of the Slovak Technical Museum in Košice.
The salt store, a unique construction work with a clearly specified purpose, was built in 1674. It was rebuilt after the mine was flooded, and then even more again after the fire on 14th April 1819. The original ground construction was extended and a classicistic tower with a clock and typical helmet spire was added. The roof above the chambers was reconstructed into a monumental attic. The interior used to have seven chambers in which they stored the year-long production of salt. The chambers had the floors and walls clad with wood, which protected the stone masonry from direct contact with the salt.
The store house gradually deteriorated in the second half of the 20th century. After 1970, it was used as a depositary of the Slovak Technical Museum, where they stored historical fire fighting trucks. Paradoxically, it was this building that was hit by a large fire on 18th May 1986. The fire destroyed all older and original wooden constructions, including floors, cladding and trusses, with the exception of the tower interior that was refurbished after 1819. The renovation of this unique building was carried out 28 years after it burnt down. The area was opened to the public in March 2016.
Bee-house in Dechtice
Renovated in 2014, the bee-house is part of the so-called Mudroch mill’s area in Dechtice. The water mill with its area was enlisted as a national cultural monument in 2011. The ice-house was added in 2014. The historical documents record it as Mudroch cylindrical mill since 1933. The cadastral map from 1894 marks it as Neuwirth mill. The mill area consists of five monument constructions: the water mill with Mudroch’s family house, race-way with a lock-gate, farmstead, bee-house and cellar, the so-called ice-house. These buildings are situated around the yard and enclosed by a garden with a mature lime tree.
The first military mapping from 1752 – 1784 documents two mills on the specified place in the second half of the 18th century. Back then, all mills in Dechtice were owned by the noble family of Erdődy, who rented them to the millers. After 1855, the Erdődy estate went to the hands of the Pálffys. By the end of the 19th century (definitely from 1894 until 1904), the Neuwirth family owned the estate. The map shows a mill and farmstead. John Mudroch senior, from a renowned mill family in Modra, bought the mill in 1904. During the mill modernisation in 1933, the mill wheel was removed and a turbine installed. The bee-house was joined to the mill’s existing buildings and farmstead in 1940. In 1953 the mill was nationalised and then used as a family house.
The bee-house in the garden was re-built from an older bee-house in 1940. It was made of unburnt brick and had three rows of beehives with simpler artistic designs around the entrances. The beehives were the work of John Mudroch senior, who was not only good as a miller and builder, but also as an artist, which can be seen from his preserved amateur drawings. The bee-house stopped being used in 1979.
The complex renovation of the mill area and purposeful arrangement of the 18th and 19th-century buildings with original technological equipment that has been used until recently, suggest an establishment of the Museum of Mill-making and Traditional Crafts in Dechtice and its region.
Ivana Kvetánová – Margaréta Musilová
Veduta of Possonia-Bratislava in Palazzo Vecchio in Florence
One of the oldest images of Bratislava, the fresco with the painting of Possonia is located in Palazzo Vecchio at Piazza della Signoria, right in the centre of Florence. It is part of the veduta series of significant places of the Habsburg monarchy and Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. These vedute can be seen right after entering the palace – in the first courtyard, known as Cortile di Michelozzo. They were created for the occasion of the marriage between the daughter of Ferdinand I Habsburg, Johanna von Habsburg (Giovanna D´Austria) and Francesco de´ Medici in 1565. Along with Bratislava, there are images of other towns, such as Vienna, Prague, Passau, Klosterneuburg, Stein, Graz, Innsbruck, Linz, Freiburg im Breisgau, Kostnica, Hall in Tirol, Eberndorf and Wiener Neustadt.
For Cosimo I de Medici (1537 – 1574), the marriage of his son Francesco with one of Ferdinand’s daughters was a strategic step. The long negotiations ended with the death of the emperor in July 1564. After a year of mourning, he continued the marriage negotiations with the brother of the bride – new Emperor Maximilian II (1564 – 1576). Johanna arrived in Florence on 16th December 1565. The bride’s arrival enjoyed a lot of attention. Several period authors (Domenico Mellini, Giovanni Battista Adriani) as well as later ones (Luigi Verani, Filippo Moisé, Modesto Rastrelli) wrote about it. The main “director and ideologist” of the ceremony was the grand-duke Cosimo I himself with Vincenzo Borghini and Giorgio Vasari. The streets and squares were decorated with sculptures, triumphal arches and set pieces that celebrated the Habsburg and Medici families. The bride was welcomed to a new residence with the images of the places that reminded her of home.
Cosimo de´Medici most probably ordered the works for decorating Cortile di Michelozzo in January 1565. Hieronymus Graffiter, a German salesman from Augsburg was assigned to get the vedute of German places, but in the end, only a few were painted in Cortile di Michelozzo, including Bratislava. Above every pictured town was its name in German and Latin. The fresco of Possonia is inspired by the oldest newsletter depicting Bratislava in 1563. Based on the historical records, the Latin inscription Posonium, Hungariae civitas, in quas Max. coronatus fuit was written under it. It retold the significance of Bratislava city during the coronation of Hungarian royals. The Bratislava image depicts the town during the coronation of Maximilian II on 8th September 1563.
On the occasion of the 450th origin of the Bratislava fresco and its late restoration, as well as the Slovak chairmanship in the EU council in the second half of 2016, the international conference on the theme Veduta of Possonia-Bratislava and Its Hidden Story will take place on 4th May 2016 in Florence in the Palazzo Medici – Riccardi.