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Revue Pamiatky a múzeá - Summary 2/2009

21. apríla 2012
Jozef Hoššo
The discovery of Žilina castle
The construction of underground parking at Hurbanova street in Žilina leant itself to an archaeological research under the supervision of the author of this article and it took place from May to October 2008. A torso of the foundations of a large circular building was unearthed at the place of the lately demolished ground-floor houses, in close vicinity to the vicarage of the parish church (originally consecrated to the Virgin Mary, but from the last quarter of the 16th century to the Most Holy Trinity). The anniversary of the first written evidence about Žilina, or rather Žilina’s larger surrounding area (terra Selinan,) from 1208, highlighted the significance of the founding. Though we cannot talk about the existing town of Žilina as such at the aforementioned time, the settlement had undoubtedly started then. Archaeological findings of the settlement remnants from the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries in the Šefranica locality convincingly prove this.
In the late Medieval Ages, Žilina was one of the most significant towns in the north-western region of Slovakia.The Parish church had dominated the medieval town since the second half of the 13th century. The second dominant building in Žilina territory, or in its smaller or larger surroundings, was the Žilina castle itself (Castrum regis Solna). The first written reference to the castle comes from 1318. A destructive earthquake in the middle of the 14th century had rendered the castle desolate. The last mention of the castle dates from 1454, when the Reeve Pankrác had to give the castle back to King Ladislav Pohrobok (Ladislaus Posthumus). It is more than likely that the castle had already lost its function as a permanently occupied fortress. The opinions of historians on the castle’s location are even more blurred than the information regarding its origin and extinction. The most likely suggestion is the place near the parish church, which got built subsequently after the castle’s construction as its pendant. The possibility of identifying the castle with the archaeological finding of the foundations’ torso of the circular fortified residential tower, made of quarry stones joined with a quality lime mortar, complicates the later development of this territory. A set of wooden buildings was probably built there in the Middle Ages, which was hit by a fire in 1886 that completely destroyed the historical core of Žilina, including the parish church. The groundwork which ensued during the debris removal after the fire irretrievably destroyed the standard discovery conditions, which could have made possible the dating of the tower’s construction as well as that of Žilina castle itself.

Zuzana Ševčíková – Tomáš Janura
The lowland fort of Rohovce
In the large park of Rohovce, a municipality to be found south-east of Šamorín in southern Slovakia, is a four-wing manor house with a central courtyard. Its facades are simply divided in classicistic style with the addition of a neoclassic portico at the renaissance portal leading to the garden. The research carried out in 2005 has revealed new historic connections and documented earlier development phases of the building.
It had been established until recently that the Rohovce manor house was originally a renaissance building dating from 1570, which had been rebuilt in baroque style in the first half of the 18th century and that the western façade had been adjusted in classicistic style in the first half of the 19th century. The historical literature, however, speaks of a fortified residence – “castle” or fort (castrum) well before 1570. The considered architectural-historical and artistic-historical research, which also included archival study, was to focus on the identification of individual phases of the development movements as well as on the investigation of details and technologies. The first construction phase from the 16th century represented by now an extensive architecture. There was a closed asymmetrical courtyard with an eastern corner protruding at an acute angle, which was suggestive of a bastion that used to appear in what was then Hungary, under the influence of the Italian defensive system.   
Relics of authentic fortress architecture can be found on the north-western side of the building below ground level. The Rohovce fort also had loopholes at ground level, suggesting the presence of a defensive surrounding water moat. The readily visible traces of the defensive water and fortified system around the manor house bear evidence of the fortified castle surrounded by water up until today. The archive documentation from 1745 also makes mention of this – a preserved description of individual buildings for a missing plan of the manor house also uses the name “fort”. The research has revealed that before the first half of the 16th century, the renaissance lowland fort (castrum) in Rohovce was a fortified economic and administration centre of the estate, which was mainly of utility value without pretensions of any higher representative ambitions. In the first half of the 18th century the Rohovce fort was to experience a large constructional change. Rohovce was to become the property of the Illesházy family and the administration residence of the local estate changed into a residential and representative centre. In the second half of the 19th century, the Rohovce estate was owned by the Batthyány and later by the Pongrácz-Batthyány family. At that time, the entire area including the manor house was changed significantly. The fortified system had categorically perished and the manor house was to be given a representative make-over. The first decades of the 20th century meant an improvement in residential comfort and basic repairs. After 1945, the manor house was to change owners as well as function. The division of the area brought with it the loss of its original, natural, architectural and park environment. The current owner is trying to reconstruct the area for new sociable and social purposes.

Lubor Suchý – Karol Ďurian – Peter Krušinský
Historical trusses in Turiec
Historical trusses, as part of immovable cultural monuments, have not yet been systematically researched in Slovakia. Therefore the knowledge on these constructions is insufficient. This results from the limited information on their age, development, typology, construction system with many noticeable details, as well as on the work of carpenters in the past. The historical truss, as an essential part of a construction, warrants consistent monumental research before a planned renovation, and the same should apply to other parts of the construction. Of paramount importance is an exact survey and documentation of all the constructions, including all artefacts and any details found in the attic. The house-top with truss often provides the answer to many questions on the architectural-historical development of the construction.
In 2008, the Regional Monuments Board Žilina  – Martin Department, in cooperation with the Civil Engineering Faculty of Žilina University – Department of Building Engineering and Urban Planning, researched and documented truss constructions of the historical sacral architecture in the Turiec region and provisionally explored the trusses of the Orava region. Their findings published in the book Historical Trusses of Sacral Constructions in Turiec, along with a complete documentation, will serve to fulfil the needs of Slovakia’s Monuments Board, as well as the regional monuments boards, and offer expert assistance in renovation and preservation of the monument fund as a whole, including the trusses within the mentioned region.

Kristína Zvedelová – Ivan Gojdič
Changes to the moraine in Štrbské pleso tarn
Settlements. Štrbské Pleso, the highest placed municipality of the High Tatras, which surrounds the second largest mountain lake in the southern part of the Tatras, has undergone four phases of urban-architectural development since the last third of the 19th century: a formative phase – in the last decades of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries; a less significant one during the first Czechoslovak Republic; an intensive one during the preparation for the world championships in classical disciplines (1970); and a modernising one at the present time. Only a few constructions by the southern moraine of the mountain lake have been preserved from the first developmental phase. Nonetheless, their composition provided one of the High Tatras’ most valuable historical architectural complexes.
The early development of the municipality of Štrbské Pleso, situated at 1,355 metres above sea level, coincided with the arrival of the yeoman family of Szentiványi from Liptovský Ján. In 1872, Jozef Szentiványi built a game cabin there and three years later, he permitted the Hungarian Carpathian Society to build a tourist hut, which he supported both financially and materially. In his honour, it was entitled Jozef’s lodging-house. Influenced by the development of tourism, Jozef Szentiványi started to build the Štrbské Pleso Hotel (Csorba Tó száloda) in 1879, where he later added a café (1887) and restaurant (1892), as well as other rooms. The Tourist House (Turistaház) was built near the hotel in 1881, replacing the oldest game cabin. For himself, Szentiványi built a private summerhouse in 1893, the so-called Jozef’s villa (Józseflak). It still exists (by the name of Jánošík since 1919) and forms part of the large area of hotels (Hviezdoslav, Kriváň, and late Končistá) that frame the southern bank of the Štrbské Pleso lake.
In 1901 the municipality of Štrbské Pleso became the property of the Hungarian Kingdom, which signed a lease contract with the Belgian company Wagon Lits valid until 1908. During that time, the Belgian company built a new Grandhotel at the site of the older tourist lodging-house (the third Tatras’ Grandhotel in row; Starý Smokovec – 1904, Tatranská Lomnica – 1905), which was opened to the public in 1906.
Concurrent with the building of the Grandhotel, also known as the New Hotel (Új száloda), a new tourist lodging-house was being built at the site of Szentiványi’s first game cabin that was named Gemer (Gömörlak). This act of merit, which appealed to the less solvent, or contemporary “backpack” clientele of the High Tatras, has probably been associated with the demolition of the older Tourist House from 1881 at the place of the planned construction of the Grandhotel in 1904. The hotelier family of Klimo rented the Grandhotel in 1908 and consequently built the most modern building – the poly-functional facility of Končistá, which joined the western façade of the Grandhotel’s accommodation block. Between 1914 and 1917 the architects Guido Hoepfner and Géza Györgyi added a complex of catering and cultural-social facilities to the Grandhotel and this area became the centre of Štrbské Pleso.
Later construction changes to the hotel complex were to have a devastating influence; consequently the decision to pull down a building was preferred to its reconstruction. This resulted in the pulling down of the most progressive construction in the area, which was linked to the building of the last station of the electric railway from Starý Smokovec, which itself had been running since 1912. By destroying the Končistá, the High Tatras was to lose architecture that in this region had overcome time by more than two decades and only the top functionalist buildings of the 1930s have outmatched it.  

Zora Myslivcová
The phenomenon of the park square in Zvolen
Zvolenské námestie (Zvolen Square) - this is the central urban area of one of the oldest of Slovak towns and evolved from a marketplace near a long-distance merchant road which led to Zvolen Castle. In the Middle Ages, the square had taken shape alongside the road in a spindled fashion and became the largest historical square in Slovakia.
The monument values of the Square of the Slovak National Uprising in Zvolen are protected by the state in two ways: as the Monument Zone of Zvolen outlined by the town’s fortification and as a national cultural monument of the Church of St. Elisabeth with the park. The monument preservation concentrates its attention on the complex architectural-urban area, including the town’s historical public park. 
When a new structure – the promenade – appeared at Zvolen Square in the middle of the 19th century, this urban landmark was to go up a notch in quality, certainly when compared with its previous effectiveness when used as a marketplace. The walking area situated in the middle of the square between the two churches – Roman-Catholic and Evangelic, was not created coincidentally. It originated at a time when large cities were building their parks and demonstrated the awakening of the Zvolen bourgeoisie after the revolution of 1848.
The first evidence of a proposed park can be found on the cadastral map of 1860. In the grounds separating the churches, twin lanes of trees have been lined up lengthways along the north-south divide of the square and vertically by the Church of St. Elisabeth. The oldest known photograph of Zvolen Square from the last quarter of the 19th century pictures the eastern part of the square, where fenced alleys of young trees frame the road leading towards the castle. The card dated from January 14, 1902 shows tree-tops grown from the original two double-lanes with secondary planting of the young trees in the middle. Also new is the alley planted on the right side of the main draining gutter in the southern part of the square. Another functional feature is the alley planted in front of the houses on the eastern and western side of the square. 
After alterations in 1907, during the installation of the bust of Francis II Rákóczi, the park became oval in shape in its southern part and the front was directed towards the castle. The park naturally evolved from a restricted alley shape and divided the square into inner functional zones, namely that of marketplace and greenery, which did not mutually interfere. The functional and aesthetical values of the historic centre were to reach their zenith at the time.   
The aerial photograph of 1923 grabs your attention with the display of a vivid alley directly linking the park. The ground plan of the park between the churches thus takes on the shape of a trapezium, instead of the original rectangle. This was the time when the modern town of Zvolen was to expand as the seat of the Pohronie County during the first Czechoslovak Republic, which meant amongst other things the abolition of the draining gutter at the square and the implementation of canalisation, the paving of walks and the extension of the western side of the old town park. 
Newly planted lime-trees became the ideological motif of the park with their symbolism of Slavic solidarity. 
The photographs from 1945 – 1947 provide the key to an understanding of the breaking changes in the development of Zvolen park, which is dominated by the memorial built as a symbol of the town’s liberation. The big park behind is divided and reduced by almost a half on the northern side. Almost all of the hundred-years-old trees have been removed. From the entire wood samples, the lime-trees planted in the 1920s are still growing.

Filip Glocko
On the scent of tobacco
The exhibition On the Scent of Tobacco, which took place at the Central-Slovak Museum in Banská Bystrica in the second half of 2008, set out to show the full range of pipes and smoking instruments, together with pictures of smoking motifs to be found on decoration-utility articles, that were the property of the museum. The publication Pipes and Smoking Instruments from the Collections of the Museum of Central Slovakia accompanied the exhibition.
The exhibition offered the visitor a full review of pipe-making development in Europe. Special attention was dedicated to the history of pipe-making in the former Hungary and Slovakia. The visitor could see more than 440 pipes made of various materials and coming from different provenances and periods. Altogether, the Slovak-Central Museum’s fund of history, fine art and ethnography comprises almost 600 articles. The pipes from clay, the so-called “štiavničky” from Banská Štiavnica, which had become popular all over the continent and even overseas, commanded particular attention.  
The clay pipes had been made in family workshops in Banská Štiavnica since the 17th century. The oldest-known was the pipe workshop of Benedikt and Benjamín Ahnert (from the beginning of the 19th century). The second of significance was the workshop of the Hönig family in the first quarter of the 19th century. Among other old workshops were those of Jozef and Ľudmila Schmidt, Štefan Mihálik, Samuel Bisch, Franz Raugh, Samuel Pohl and Karl Kehrn. The most famous was the workshop of Karol Zachar (1852 – 1925). Zachar’s pipes date to the period between the end of the 18th century and first half of the 19th century. New types of pipes can be also ascribed to the designer Ján Debnár, the workshop’s long-term worker. The pipes were first glazed and enamelled in Vienna and Pest, later at a stove builder’s in Nová Baňa. Zachar’s nephew Rudolf Môcik (1890 – 1969) took over the workshop in 1925, keeping the original name. When the workshop closed in 1959, as the last pipe-making business in Slovakia, it brought to an end one of the most successful crafts in Banská Štiavnica.
Other pipe examples, made of wood, came from Germany, (Ulm, Ruhla), Italy (Bolzano) and France (Saint-Claude). In addition, sea-foam pipes made largely in Vienna, Germany (Lemgo, Ruhla), England and France, were also to lead the way in the fashion of the 19th century.
Metal pipes had similarly played a significant role in the history of smoking. Villagers in the main preferred them because they were unbreakable and thus durable. Those smokers from the higher echelons of society visited smiths to order silver, richly decorated pipes, often inlaid with gems. The using of metal pipes had not successfully spread itself much throughout Europe. Nevertheless, some Alpine regions have been making them until today. 
The exhibition also introduced pipes made of untraditional materials – animal bones, amber, stone and glass from various world countries. It also featured water pipes that originated in the old India (not as an invention of Arabs and Turks), opium and porcelain pipes. The oldest displayed articles were the pipe heads from the 17th century from Dutch pipe workshops. A curiosity was one of the smallest functional matches in the world.

Marián Bovan
The pipe of “Štúrovec” Grossmann
Researching the identities and origins of the artefacts in our museum collections is akin to setting out on a small adventure. This was the case with the only porcelain pipe to have been found in the fund of the Museum of Central Slovakia. The pipe, 97 mm long and 48 mm wide, was of no prima facie significance. However, it did possess some merits: the dating was not missing, and we knew who its first owner was, as well as the man he then gave it to. 
In the second decade of the 19th century, the three Grossmann brothers – Gustáv, Ľudovít and Ladislav – had been born in the mining town of Pukanec. They each had become influential, though lesser known national-cultural activists and supporters of the nationalist movement. The oldest of these, Gustáv Dobroslav (*1813), had worked closely with Ľudovít Štúr, the leader of the Slovak national revival. After his studies at Bratislava lyceum, Gustáv went on to study theology at Halle University in 1839 – 1840. At the end of his stay there, he dedicated the porcelain pipe to his younger brother, Ľudovít Bohdan, who came to study in Germany two years later and after Gustáv’s premature death in 1846 continued with his work in the national movement. Between 1847 and 1888, Ľudovít worked as a pedagogue at the Evangelical gymnasium in Banská Bystrica, where he was to later die in 1890. This explains the fact of the porcelain pipe’s having found itself among the collections of the former town’s, and today’s Central-Slovak Museum.

Zuzana Francová
Relics of F. F. Rómer in the Bratislava City Museum
This article discusses the relics of the archaeological pioneer of what was then Hungary, the Pressburg native Franz Floridus Rómer (1815 – 1889), which have been preserved in the collections of the Bratislava City Museum. Rómer had initiated the foundation of this museum and bequeathed to it many of his belongings. From the period when he worked as a director of the Catholic gymnasium in Pest, there came a silver candlestick with inkpot and penholder, which he received from his students in 1866. A memento of Rómer’s father – a shoemaker of Viennese origin, Franz Ramer, is a wooden box (sugar-box) with a shoemaking image and humorous German text. A very interesting historical document is the cardboard cassette for embroidery with a detailed model of Josefstadt’s prison cell inside. Rómer had made it himself during his imprisonment in this Eastern-Czech fortress in 1850 – 1854. On the outside, the cassette lists the names of 107 Hungarian nationalists – participants of the revolution in 1848 – 1849, who were imprisoned in Olomouc and Josefstadt. They included several famous personalities, such as Count Ferdinand Zichy (1783 – 1862), General Josef Dobay (1820 – 1898), Evangelical Priest, Officer and Professor from Nagyvárad (today’s Oradea Mare in Romania) Lajos Hajdu (1813 – 1901), Lieutenants Károly Kiss (1796 – 1866), Elek Forró (1813 – 1893) and Lajos Zambelly (1815 – 1901).

Zlata Troligová
The Art Nouveau trifles of Hana Gregorová
One of the exhibition cases in the State Scientific Library – Museum of Literature and Music in Banská Bystrica is dedicated to Slovak writer, edification worker and advocator of women’s emancipation rights Hana Gregorová (1885 – 1958), the wife of the celebrated writer Jozef Gregor Tajovský. Apart from the precious private correspondence between the couple, which accounts for well over a thousand pieces in the museum’s collections (and still growing), the museum also owns several of her photographs and personal belongings, among others a rare coffee and tea set and an Art Nouveau powder box, probably a remnant of the sojourn in Paris in 1926.
 
Zuzana Gažíková – Peter Vítek
The Liptov aristocracy in portraits
The exhibition entitled The Liptov Aristocracy in Portraits, which took place in the Liptov gallery of P. M. Bohúň in Liptovský Mikuláš in February and March of 2009, has been unique in Slovakia in its presentation of older art until the beginning of the 20th century. The book on Aristocratic Country Seats in Liptov County, written by young historian Tomáš Janura and published by the gallery, preceded the exhibition. The author also helped to select the works for the exhibition. More than twenty portraits of Liptov noblemen came in the main from the collections of Slovak museums and galleries, but also from one church and one private collection. The portraits of the Liptov noblemen, mainly the lower aristocracy, enjoying a rural way of life, are not among the most valuable from an art-historical aspect; therefore painters were not assigned to the exhibited works. Probably they were artists of little, often only local significance, which with some exceptions is manifested in the quality of their works. The exhibition was important from a local- historical viewpoint and its aim was to remind the visitors of the interesting and rich history of the Liptov region and its inhabitants.

Eva Nelišerová – Anna Ďurišová – Igor Broska
The planet we live on
In November 2008, the SNM – Natural Science Museum in Bratislava opened a thematically extensive exhibition dedicated to the planet Earth. The exhibition is an activity within the International Year of Planet Earth, which is a global initiation into the promotion of geosciences designed for their impact on society and man’s existence on Earth. 
The SNM exhibition is divided into thematic topics. The Geology of Slovakia presents the morphology and geological development of the Slovak territory, which also relates to the use of mineral resources. Their importance is discussed within the section What Does Earth Give Us? An almost three metre long cross-section model of our planet, which illustrates the earth’s basic inner spheres along with processes that happen inside the earth’s body, whilst simultaneously influencing events on the surface, dominates this part of the exhibition. The exhibition also introduces us to the hydrosphere (water on Earth) and the atmosphere of Earth. The atmosphere absorbs most of the ultraviolet sun radiation, regulates the temperature fluctuations between day and night and thus offers protection to life on Earth. A big emphasis is also put on soil – the Earth’s living skin, which together with air and water, forms the basic natural environmental ingredient vital for life on Earth.  
The part entitled Earth –the Living Planet, talks about the 3.5 billion years of life on Earth from the origin of the first microscopic organisms up to the moment when man gained control over the planet. The exhibition offers information relating to the various forms of fossils; it is a small gallery of the most characteristic animal and plant representatives of past geological periods with breaks at significant developmental changes.
A specific part of the exhibition is dedicated to the geological development of Slovakia and its raw materials. Geoscientific knowledge and research is fundamental for today’s scientifically minded society, e.g. in the quest for, and protection of, sources of drinking water and the building of technical works and line constructions, such as highways, railways and gas pipelines. The original exhibits of rocks, minerals, fossils and various models help the visitors to better apprehend even the most complicated information.
The exhibition originated as an initiative of the National Geological Committee of the Slovak Republic thanks to the mutual efforts of the Geological and Geophysical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the Slovak National Museum – Natural Science Museum and the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the Comenius University and State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr. It is open until June 30, 2009.

Nora Hebertová – Katarína Chmelinová
F. A. Maulbertsch and the main altar of the Kremnica Franciscans
The main altar of the monastery church of the Kremnica Franciscans forms a large and dominating part of the church. Particular literature had long dated it to around 1777, basing its findings on the time of the monastery’s fire. A more detailed archival research however has recently proved that it comes from 1796 – 1797. This was the time of the large renovation of the burnt church and began after the death of Emperor Joseph II in 1790 and the subsequent relaxation of his restrictive measurements.
The main altar, consecrated to St. Francis of Assisi, is of a late-baroque style. The central part reveals a large canvas, painted by the genius of the late Central-European baroque period, Franz Anton Maulbertsch. It pictures the scene of St. Francis’ stigmatisation, with sculptures of St. Catherine and St. Barbara at the sides. The image is completed by the presence of God the Father at the pinnacle. This extraordinary shrine, which had for a long time been overlooked by special literature, was in a state of disrepair until last year. With the instigation of the Roman-Catholic Church and the Kremnica parish church, as well as partial financial support from the Culture Ministry of the Slovak Republic, the shrine’s restoration started in 2008. The first phase preoccupied itself in the main with its dismantlement. Additional artistic-historical research followed, which brought about reinforcement of the architecture, as well as the cleaning and removing of repaints. Thanks to the archival sources, we know that the works on the altar construction lasted from July 2 to October 2 in 1796. But we do not know who designed the altar work. This type of altar construction, though, is one of the most common in the 18th century.
The centre piece of the altar is the afore- mentioned painting, the Stigmatisation of St. Francis (380 x 187cm). Several years ago, the painting was convincingly defined as one of the last works of F. A. Maulbertsch († 7. 8. 1796) and his workshop. This significant Central-European painter had probably received an order from the Kremnica Franciscans to paint the scene via the Franciscan monastery in Gyöngyös, for which he worked in the 1780s. He sent the painting from Vienna. It was then put into a simple frame and the final painter’s touch was apparently given by the Kremnica painter Štefan Wölcsey, who also assisted with the church’s other altar paintings.  
The ongoing research of this huge painting is not yet complete as an additional layer applied in the first half of the 19th century covers three quarters of the original painting in the canvas’ upper part. Only the lower quarter of the painting has remained untouched, where the signature of F. Ant. Maulpertsc has been discovered along with the dating underneath Pint: 795.  

Marian A. Mayer – Barbora Matáková
The organ in Zemianske Kostoľany
Zemianske Kostoľany is an ancient municipality of the Upper Nitra region (on the border of western and central Slovakia) and its first written documentation dates from 1331. In the 15th century, the noble family of Kosztolányi were to form an integral part of its history, developing rich construction activities there and leaving traces on a municipally sacred life.  
While several localities of the region had either preserved their catholic religion or come to be recatholicized, the Kosztolányis had kept their Lutheran faith even in the critical period of the second half of the 17th century. They finally managed to build an evangelical church in 1734 – 1736 and it was to take even more decades to gradually furnish it. By the end of the 18th century, the interior was fully furnished with movables with enlarged altar architecture, into which an early-baroque retabulum was imbedded. All interior elements were created in the spirit of older copies, with plastic features of late-baroque ornamentation. It has remained a mystery, whether the wooden emporia was built concurrently with the church construction or was added later. As far as the current dating of the instrument goes, to the end of the 18th or beginning of the 19th century, the organ was placed on the emporia after the large interior furnishing. Based on the outer signs of the organ cabinet, the organ was created independently on a late-baroque apparatus. It is also possible that it was built for another church and was transported to Zemianske Kostoľany from the nearby locality of Turiec, Pohronie or Liptov.
The five-register positive organ comes from the end of the 18th or beginning of the 19th century. The whole instrument is assembled from individual parts that fit into each other and can be dismantled, as is common with all old positive organs built by Slovak organ makers. 
The state of the instrument had been causing concern for several decades until 2004, when the evangelic church choir of the Augsburg confession managed to obtain financial means for the general reconstruction of the instrument as well as its cabinet. The aim of the restoration was to return the instrument to its original state in the most careful way and has undoubtedly helped to save it. Two concerts have already been played on the restored instrument – one took place on the occasion of the renovated instrument’s blessing and the other one was part of the 17th annual international festival of Slovak Historical Organs.

Zuzana Trepková-Paternostro
Consalvo Carelli: The Church of St. Francis in Cava
Art historian Zuzana Trepková-Paternostro was born in Budapest and studied History of Art at the Philosophical Faculty of Comenius University in Bratislava (doctorate in 1977). She worked for the Slovak National Gallery (1967 – 1971) and since 1972 has lived in Brazil, where she works as a curator at the foreign arts department of the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes in Rio de Janeiro. She has written publications and organised exhibitions on Brazilian and European art, and worked with special associations of American and European cultural institutions. In 2008, she dedicated the painting Church of St. Francis in Cava by Consalvo Carelli to Bratislava City Gallery, which has enriched its collections of the 19th century.
Consalvo (Gonsalve) Carelli is one of the remarkable painters of Italian landscape painting of the 19th century and at the same time a significant representative of the artistic school in Posillipo near Naples (La Scuola di Posillipo, Napoli), which has led artists to create in free nature rather than in the studio. The school’s preferred themes were sea sceneries and the surrounding countryside.
Dutchman Anton Sminck, also known as Antonio van Pitloo (1790 – 1837), played a crucial role in the school’s existence. Settled in Italy, he was considered to be its founder, along with Belgian Frans Vervloet (1795 – 1872) and local painter Giacinto Gigante (1806 – 1876).  
Consalvo Carelli was born in Naples in 1818. Besides his artistic activity, he also taught painting to Princess Margaret of Savoy and in 1848 he actively joined the Garibaldi movement for unifying Italy. He was highly acclaimed yet during his life he painted the commissions of aristocratic families in Italy and France, not to mention Russian tsars. His works can be found in the most significant public and private collections around Naples as well as in other European towns.
The painting of the Church of St. Francis in Cava was purchased in an antique shop in Rio de Janeiro in 1996. That same year it was introduced to the public at the exhibition entitled Italian Landscape Painting of the 19th Century and the School in Posillipo. Being the first painting of C. Carelli in the public collections of Slovakia, the Slovak public can now get better acquainted with the Italian landscape painting of the 19th century, the pilgrimage of European artistic works from Europe to Southern America, as well as the collection activity in Brazil.    

The Edition of National Cultural Monuments in Slovakia
Interview with the project’s sponsor Ľubica Szerdová-Veľasová
The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic, in cooperation with the Slovart Publishing House, Ltd., prepared the first title of the New Edition of National Cultural Monuments in Slovakia, in 2008. After a break of 40 years, the Edition follows today’s legendary Register of Monuments in Slovakia I – III published by the Slovak Institute of Monuments Preservation and Natural Protection in the Obzor Publishing House in 1967 – 1969.
The Edition aims to introduce the public to the movable and immovable cultural monuments listed in the Central Register of the Monuments Fund, as it is currently defined by Act No. 49/2002 Coll. on the Protection of the Monuments Fund. The book presentation of this large project’s results fulfils the ambitions of today’s generation of conservationists, which is to present their opinion on the monuments fund of Slovakia at the beginning of the 3rd millennium. Its results have been collected from the ground and basic scientific research and documentation work by the workers of the Monuments Board and the regional monuments boards.
The Edition’s individual volumes are divided into the regions of the current territorial-administration partition of the Slovak Republic valid since 1996. The establishments with a large number of monuments will be published in separate volumes. The Edition’s goal has been spread over a longer period and the publishing of individual volumes follows the gradual revision of the Central Register of the Monuments Fund.
The Edition has been launched by the publication National Cultural Monuments in Slovakia – the Ružomberok Region, which introduces the monuments of the lower Liptov region.