Revue Pamiatky a múzeá - Summary 3/2017
Unknown Flemish grisaille
manuscript from Betliar
The circumstances that led to the discovery of the rare, 15th century illuminated manuscript in the Betliar Manor House were bizarre: it was found in the drawer of a baroque chest that was unopened for decades. The value of this miniature script of Ilona Andrássy's Book of Watches, attributed to Willem Vrelant’s Flemish studio, is priceless in our public collections, as it could not be compared to anything similar. It even includes a dedication: “To my most beloved granddaughter, Ilona Andrássy. June 1934,” so we know its last owner.
The term “watches” in this case meant the medieval collections of prayers, mostly pocket-sized, intended for praying in privacy. They were amongst the most widespread types of book painting in Western Europe’s handwritten collections. The book usually started with a calendar, followed by daily Marian prayers (officium Beatae Mariae Virgines), often accompanied by night prayers for the deceased ones (officium mortuorum). They were usually inherited from generation to generation, which can be explained by the fact that quite a large number have been preserved in the West up to this day in excellent condition – e.g. the Livre d'heures by Jeanne d'Évreux (1324-1328), Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (1412-1416) and Grandes Heures de Rohan (1430-1435).
The Betliar’s miniature codex was written and illuminated at the same time, approximately between 1460 and 1480. Its leather binding, which protects 276 films, is probably from the 19th century (85 × 65 × 30 mm). The calendar is on the films 2r – 13v. The list of saints, or diocese patrons, helps us to recognise the local liturgical customs. In this case, it seems we are talking about the Ghent - Bruges region. The films contain 15 illuminated double-sided pages with figural scenes that worked as breaks between the prayers. The films with more modest decoration only have pen-drawn initials, also called fleuronée, highlighted in blue and red, and sometimes in gold.
The highlights of the decoration are figural scenes that the illuminator set either in a mountainous landscape with a vast horizon (King David, Visitation, Annunciation to the Shepherds, Flight into Egypt, etc.) or the interior (Judgment of Solomon, Annunciation, Introduction in the Temple, St. Jerome in his Study, etc.). Also unique is the specific painting style with reduced colour, in grey tones – grisaille.
In a wider context, Ilona Andrássy's Book of Watches from Betliar will soon become the subject of international research. This will no doubt help to expand the knowledge on Flemish book painting in the third quarter of the 15th century.
Collection of diving gear of Peter Ferdinandy from Revúca
The Gemer-Malohont Museum in Rimavská Sobota had its first contact with the large collection of the historical diving gear of Peter Ferdinandy from Revúca in 2005, when organising the exhibition Diving Yesterday and Today. A year later, the museum managed to secure the finances needed for acquiring this remarkable and unique collection in Slovakia.
The beginnings of cave diving in the Gemer-Malohont region go to the 1950s. The collector Peter Ferdinady (1948) from Revúca was one of the founders of the diving sport in the 1970s. He helped to initiate the Club of Sport diving - Vega Lubeník (1976) and was a diving instructor mainly in eastern Slovakia. He was also active in cave diving and up to this date has helped with researching flooded caves in the Tisovec and Muráň karst area.
He co-published a number of books on diving, diving gear and cave diving. He became the instructor with the highest diving qualification in Slovakia with three CMAS stars (Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques – World Underwater Federation). He is one of the founding members of the Historical Diving Society in Czech Republic (HDS CZ), which also studies the history of diving in Slovakia.
Peter Ferdinady had been collecting the diving gear while still actively diving and also, thanks to his professional and friends contacts in Slovakia as well as abroad. He had collected and exhibited these items for over four decades. The collection contains original diving gear from Europe as well as other parts of the world, including various DIY items such as knives, batteries, snorkels, masks and depth gauges. There are quite a few boxes used for shooting photos and videos under water. An interesting addition is the homemade subaquatic scooter from 1990.
The collected items represent diving gear of the second half of the 20th century, mainly the 1960s and 1980s. There are diving suits, vests, gloves, shoes, breathing technique and flippers, as well as pressure bottles and resuscitation apparatus, with inflatable boats. Also included are gear manuals, diving instructions and other related printouts. In total, there are 504 collection items.
Peter Barta – Anna Gondová
Celts from Bratislava
The exhibition Celts from Bratislava (Slovak National Museum-Historical Museum Bratislava, December 14, 2016 – October 1, 2017) offered an impressive insight into the times, when the first known name of an ethnicity who lived in the territory of today’s Slovak capital – the Celts. More than 2,000 years ago, the Celtic oppidum was situated in the place of Bratislava and its borders even exceeded the size of the later medieval city. The existence of this settlement is recorded by a number of archaeological finds - authentic items or architectural remains. The richness of the oppidum can be seen in the findings from the Bratislava Castle. The castle hill, then the Celtic Acropolis, contains remains of buildings that carry signs of unprecedented luxury that were by then unknown in the region. The Roman craftsmen probably built them for the Celtic people, as the analogies in the floor of the opus signinum type used on the northern terrace of the Bratislava Castle were found in Pompeii, Herculaneum and Paestum. The Celts brought inventions unknown in the territory of Slovakia: potter’s wheel, scissors and rotary mill. They were skilful smiths and artists, who often drew inspiration from their rich mythology. The Celtic coinage started its era in Slovakia, so the coin of the Biatec type from Bratislava is also the symbol of the National Bank of Slovakia.
The Celtic exhibition in Bratislava had its premiere in Perugia, Italy, in 2016, when Slovakia presided over the Council of the European Union. In the course of four months it was seen by more than 30,000 visitors. Subsequently, it was transferred to the basement areas of Bratislava Castle, which are in situ connected with the life of the Celtic elite living in the Celtic city acropolis. The installation of the exhibition naturally encompassed the conserved remains of the walls and floors of Celtic-Roman architectures from the 1st century BC, preserved under the inner courtyard of the castle.
Dream × Reality. Art & Propaganda 1939 – 1945
When the walls of Bratislava’s Slovak National Gallery were bursting at the seams in 2012, as the visitors flocked to see the exhibition Interrupted Song that displayed the art of socialist realism, the enormous interest was anticipated. It was a tradition that the same people would come to the exhibition openings and Sunday public lectures. Those times are long gone but the Slovak National Gallery now knows how to attract visitors. Instead of luring them with world’s famed artists, it focuses on the locals. Most importantly, its larger projects go beyond the gallery’s bounds and map the wider historical and social context of fine art in selected periods or themes. In addition to art, it also presents non-art, kitsch, as well as aspects of everyday life. The exhibition Dream × Reality. Art & Propaganda 1939 - 1945 (20th October 2016 – 26th February 2017) was seen by 26,000 visitors. Over 30 accompanying programs helped to explain and educate the public about the exhibition’s legacy during the 114 days it was on.
The era of the wartime Slovak state (1939-1945) collaborating with the Third Empire is still that part of our history we have not managed to come to terms with yet. That is why it was necessary to present this art in a sensitive way, with respect to the dangerous pitfalls of the propaganda that produced it. Even today, it can still evoke ideologically devious resentments. Curators Katarína Bajcurová, Petra Hanáková and Bohunka Koklesová did not moralise, on the contrary, they created a space, which made the period’s paradoxes clearly legible. It is commendable that the galley created the web pate http://senxskutocnost.sng.sk, which explains the Slovak state’s history in four chapters: Half way to creating the Slovak state; One nation, one party, one leader; 70,000 victims; and Sobering up from the Dream. The chapters refer to multimedia links, explain the terminology and encourage visitors to explore other contexts.
Katarína Kolbiarz Chmelinová
Levoča – new part of the “monuments list”
Just recently, a new, third issue of the edition National Cultural Monuments in Slovakia – Levoča appeared on our book market. It was published by the Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic in cooperation with the Slovart publishing house, and financially supported by the Slovak Culture Ministry and the Research and Development Agency.
After the introduction of the historical development of the monitored site, the authors offer an overview of its urban, architectural and artistic-historical progress. In the case of ancient Levoča, which was declared a municipal monument site in 1950 and added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2009, these introductory sections cover almost 80 pages. After them we learn basic facts about the town’s historical names, coat of arms and the town’s monuments with their locations. The monuments, arranged in groups from public buildings, through immovable and movable sacral monuments, burgher houses and historical monuments to art and technical monuments, are identified by a number from the Central List of the Monuments Fund and pictogram characterizing the relevant type of monument. The publication is richly illustrated with colour and black-and-white period photographs and maps. It also lists the used literature and other sources, name and local register and used abbreviations.
The editors of the publication are Norma Urbanová, Barbora Kosová and Ľubica Szerdová-Veľasová, the latter an expert guarantor of this long-term book edition of the National Cultural Monuments. An extensive team of professionals from three generations of the Slovak conservationists worked on the book. Its 680 pages, illustrated by hundreds of archive documents, maps, period and contemporary photographs, offer to the professional as well as lay public the most complete overview of the monumental values of Levoča, which is one of the most preserved historical urban units of Slovakia, as well as the gem of the world’s cultural heritage.
25 years of Záhorie homeland magazine
The Záhorie magazine originated in Skalica, a town in western Slovakia with a rich cultural, publishing and printing tradition. At its birth in 1991, the magazine partially substituted the popular homeland magazine Malovaný kraj (Painted Landscape), which, after successfully covering both sides of the Morava River for decades, the Slovak as well as Moravian (Czech), confined its function to Moravian territory only.
The magazine was founded in the grounds of the Záhorské Museum in Skalica, in addition to its basic activities. Renowned personalities of social science, including Konštantín Palkovič, Jozef Novák, Rudolf Krajčovič and Eva Fordinálová, guaranteed the expert level of the magazine in the first years. Since its start, the magazine has focused on presenting the history, traditions, culture and nature of the Záhorie (western Slovak) region. It publishes entries from archaeology, history, ethnology, linguistics, musicology, natural science, as well as artistic, literary, theatrical, musical and religious life. It introduces important personalities of the region, highlights important anniversaries, reports on significant cultural and social events, informs about new research results of the Záhorie Museum as well as other fund and cultural institutions, presents museum collections, reviews museum editions and other publications from the region.
The magazine is published bi-monthly, with 2,000 copies, in A5 format on at least 32 full-colour pages. The result of the 25 years of work is reflected in the magazine’s 148 issues, as well as several separate supplements dedicated to the municipalities of the Záhorie region, which amass over 4,500 pages and almost a quarter of a million of copies.
Town fortification of Trnava and its restoration
The first report on the construction of the fortification defence system of Trnava city, or rather unidentified urban ditches, comes from the document dated 1258. However, the diplomatic criticism proved the document’s younger origin, probably from the beginning of the 14th century. The defence system consisted of about thirty square-plan towers, built of burnt bricks and regularly arranged in an almost symmetrical rectangular scheme, interconnected with a ground walled structure.
The idea to preserve and present the Trnava town fortification appeared at the end of the 1960s. At that time, the historic built-up area within the city fortification was still preserved to its original extent, however, in a relatively bad construction-technical condition. The younger additions to the fortification did not allow for more accurate estimation on conserving the original structures. After removing the undesirable additions, the fortification was to be lined with public green areas on both sides.
Geodetic survey mapped the actual state of a three-kilometre long fortification with various degrees of preserved (or non-preserved) architectures in 1969. The methodology and project documentation was prepared for the construction renovation. The works were first complicated with the deconstruction of the additions, and later it was the wrongly used technology in the implementation phase. This caused the reconstructed parts to later fall apart.
In 1990, the City of Trnava replaced the conservation institutions, as an investor of the demanding restoration and revitalization of the town fortifications. They have continued to cooperate with the conservationists, carrying out architectural-historical researches of each individual construction or fortification section, as well as architectural research of no longer existing parts. Today, as the renovation of this remarkable monument reaches completion, the individual sections of the fortification are gradually being opened to the public, such as galleries, towers, bastions and areas near walls. The extensive fortification is being integrated back into the city's organism.
Restoration of St. George’s rotunda near Nitrianska Blatnica
Rotunda of St. George stands on a rocky tip, under the foot of the Marhát hill, amidst the woods of Inovec Mountain. It was built as part of an unknown settlement, which lasted for about five centuries. Based on the archaeological research, it originated at the beginning of the 9th century and gradually disappeared in the 13th century. The rotunda is located about 5 km northwest of Nitrianska Blatnica and accessible by a forest path.
The building consists of a nave and apse and its original masonry has been preserved to a large extent. The younger part of the rotunda is a simple, one-room addition of the hermitage. It is the only preserved structure of this type in Slovakia. The revitalization of the rotunda in the 16th century turned the building into a pilgrimage place and the tradition continues to this day. It is associated with worshiping the Rotunda patron – St. George. With over 400 years of tradition, it is one of the oldest pilgrimage places in Slovakia.
The rotunda of Nitrianska Blatnica began to enjoy more attention in 1973. Two large Great-Moravian estates were discovered in the wider area of the locality. The research has confirmed that the rotunda was built around the middle of the 11th century at the latest. Some crucial construction and historical indications point to an even older origin. Moreover, the results of the archaeological research suggested that the rotunda was built on older Great Moravian foundations. This called for a thorough research of the walls that was to be immediately followed by restoration works.
The results of the restoration research only revealed a torso of the baroque coatings preserved on the original walls of the rotunda’s interior, with no art decoration. Restorer Jozef Dorica enforced his intention to present the restored baroque architecture alongside the oldest preserved parts of the rotunda. This concept made it possible to completely remove the baroque remains from the building’s original walls, and reveal the interior’s oldest look, without interfering into the baroque’s building constructions and their decorative details.
The restoration of the rotunda’s interior helped to specify the date of the construction. One of the most important findings was the discovery of the original window and two consecration crosses, which have moved the rotunda origin into the pre-Roman period.
St. George’s rotunda near Nitrianska Blatnica with its largely preserved original masonry is the oldest standing rotunda not only in the territory of Slovakia but also Central Europe.
Požitava annual customs in Zlaté Moravce
The Nitra Museum has been organizing the Požitava annual customs in its branch in Zlaté Moravce for several years. The aim is to keep the traditional folk customs alive especially for young generations. In 2012, they started experimenting with creative workshops, when before Christmas the local schoolchildren guided by the museum lecturers baked gingerbread cookies. In 2013, they added the fašiangy (Shrovetide carnival) to Christmas traditions and the following year the project gradually developed into a series of events running throughout the year, like we saw in 2016.
The organizers chronologically organized the cycle of events according to the calendar or traditional date when the customs or relevant activities took place – from feather plucking, spinning and weaving, through fašiangy carnival, Easter customs, harvest and plum festivals, to pre-Christmas and Christmas traditions. This procedure was chosen based on the results of the ethnological surveys in the area and availability of folklore groups participating in the programme.
Each event included an introduction of the given custom, usually presented by an ethnologist, creative workshops for school kids, and preparation and tasting of traditional meals related to the topic. The activities took place in the museum’s exhibition space, which could only host 70 to 80 people, so the performances had to be repeated several times a day.
The Town Centre for Culture and Sport in Zlaté Moravce manages the courtyard of the manor house, where the museum is located. The museum and the centre actively cooperate, for instance during the harvest festival and performances portraying the life of the noble Migazzi family. The local community largely participates in the traditional plum festival, spending hours cooking plum jam the good old way.
The Požitava annual customs helps the inhabitants of Zlaté Moravce to recognize the old traditions and accept the local branch of the Nitra Museum as their “own”.
The Slovak National Museum-Museum of Hungarian Culture in Slovakia carried out research in 2015 that mapped the migration waves of the Czechoslovak population after the Second World War. The results were to be presented to the public in a thematic exhibition in 2016. The research encompassed the entire territory of Slovakia, and amongst the many people moved between 1945 and 1949 by the decisions of those in power, due to persecution or feeling of endangerment were also tens of thousands of Hungarians from Slovakia.
The researchers met with local historians, who informed them about the past events in some regions of southern Slovakia and put them in contact with the living witnesses. Discussions with them revealed what consequences this modern migration had on the lives of these involuntary migrants. Under the influence of their testimonies, the museum’s director Gabriella Jarábik decided to present the personal stories as part of the upcoming exhibition through the documentary Innocent Guilty, The Gemer locals in Soviet Camps (in Hungarian Ártatlan bűnösök, Gömöriek and szovjet lágerekben) ..
The research was carried out in Kolárov, Komoč, Nové Zámky, Košice and Hungary, continuing in Gemer Tornaľa, Držkovce and Veľký Blh. The inhabitants of the latter village were not only the victims of the displacement, but many were deported to the Soviet Union for forced labour, under the pretext of short-term job of ruin clearing, the so-called “malenkiy robot”, after which they would allegedly soon return home. But many never returned and were buried in the cemetery of one of the Soviet labour camps.
Local historian Aladár Lehotai has been researching the stories of his deported relatives and friends for forty years, as this event affected him as a child. In 2011, he spent two weeks in the Luhan area in Ukraine. He looked up the places with former labour camps, mines, cemeteries, and prison hospitals. He photo-documented the findings and acquired original items relating to these events. Lehotai organizes lectures and smaller exhibitions to educate the contemporaries about the labour camps in the former Soviet Union that had been taboo for so long.
Jana Maříková – Peter Baxa
Heritage of Charles the Great
The exhibition entitled The Heritage of Charles the Great at the Bratislava Castle was linked to the project Cradles of European Culture, which took place during the European programme Culture 2007 – 2013. The exhibition concept was presented in multiple variations at two major exhibitions in Ename (Belgium) and Prague (Czech Republic), as well as several smaller installations in Ravenna, Montmajour and Ljubljana. The Monuments Board joined this European project along with twelve other academic and museum institutions from nine European countries.
For Slovak visitors, the concept of the exhibition held in Bratislava in 2016 was modified in cooperation with Prague’s Archaeological Institute and other institutions from Slovakia and Hungary. The main part of the Bratislava exhibition was based on the principle of unity in diversity and diversity in unity. The first part introduced five European regions and their differences. Central Europe was shown as a new territory that accepts cultural incentives, while intensively trading with various goods, including slaves.
The principle of unity was presented through the themes of administration, religion, economics, culture, education, arts and architecture. These individual phenomena could be inspected in selected significant locations. The main focus was on Central Europe, especially Slovakia. Besides the Czech Republic and Moravia, Nitra was analysed as an independent region. It originated in the first half of the 9th century and became an important cultural and political centre at the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries. New interpretation maps, themes and exhibits helped to perceive the Nitra region in the wider Central European and European contexts.
The exhibition, installed in the restored basement of Bratislava Castle, displayed unique items borrowed from local as well as foreign institutions, such as the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary.
The exhibition showed the period of the Europe’s early Middle Ages, when the contemporary cultural Europe was formed. It opened up a discussion on the modern meaning of the past, which combines the interaction of the memory, identity and location.
Slovak Gothic treasures. The art of the late Middle Ages in Slovakia
The exhibition of the best of our late gothic art opened on the 29th of September 2016, at the Italian president’s residency, the Quirinal Palace in Rome. The presidents of Italy and Slovakia, Sergio Mattarella and Andrej Kiska, respectively, attended the ceremony. Also present were the Minister of Culture Marek Maďarič, representatives of the Roman-Catholic Church, Slovak and Italian diplomats and other guests.
For the cultural environment of Italy, the Slovak National Museum-Historical Museum prepared an exhibition, with the subtitle Vita Christi in the work of Master Paul of Levoča. The exhibition curators, art historians Mária Novotná and Alena Piatrová with the exhibition commissioner Gabriela Podušelová, chose a story that is omnipresent in European culture. Since Italy knows little about the cultural heritage of Slovakia, they decided to introduce it through the work of our most famous late-gothic artist - Master Paul of Levoča. Almost 50 exhibited artworks represented the master’s sculpture work and paintings of his contemporaries and co-workers. The collection also included samples of the most significant goldsmith works from the beginning of the 16th century, ecclesiastical fabrics and one incunabulum. The selection of works also took into consideration their connection to Italian art.
The original sculpture from the Nativity Altar of St. Jacob’s Basilica in Levoča and table paintings with the Passion (Pascha) theme from the main altar of St. Martin’s Church in Lipany were presented for the first time outside the territory of Slovakia. The exhibition also included the monumental table painting of St. Anne (Mettercia) from Rožňava, a collection of late-gothic monstrances from Spišská Nová Ves, Poprad-Veľká, Prievidza and Bojnice, as well as the altar cross and chalice from Spišská Belá. The chalice from Nitra attracted attention with the gold Roman and Byzantine coins applied to its decoration.
The Slovak National Museum brought to Rome a modest selection of our finest late gothic works that best represent the quality and richness of Slovakia’s cultural heritage.
Trnava city fortification as recorded in documents until mid 16th century
Trnava was one of the most important settlements in the whole Hungarian Kingdom, and as one of the first was granted extensive rights in 1238. This meant an early start for its urban development, part of which was the construction of the fortification wall in the 13th century. The defence system consisted of about thirty square-plan towers, built of burnt bricks and arranged at regular intervals into an almost symmetrical rectangular pattern, interconnected with a ground walled structure. This earliest phase of the city walls had been systematically re-built with masonry from about the 1270s, after the Hungarian-Czech wars and attacks on Trnava in 1271 and 1273. This fortress system, with added towers and bastions, was finally completed with many interruptions after several decades. From the 14th century it worked as the permanent defensive urban system of the city throughout the Middle Ages.
The Trnava burghers, as well as the regional or county nobility, were responsible for maintaining the Trnava walls, which in the case of danger provided necessary protection for its inhabitants and also worked as an important border fortress. In 1467, we record three mandates of King Matthias I, ordering the nobility of the Trenčín, Nitra and Bratislava counties to send their liege people to help clean the castle walls and moats.
Similar documents on the maintenance of the city walls and moats were preserved from the 16th century, specifically from 1543, 1544 and 1548. An important document that records the construction works carried out by the city during the city wall maintenance comes from 1548 to 1554. It lists the details of larger and smaller building interventions, as well as repairs to the city gates and access bridges.
Lucia Duchoňová – Daniela Čambálová
Western Slovak Museum in Trnava after renovation
The West Slovak Museum in Trnava underwent reconstruction and modernization of its building in 2015. Since its origin in 1954, it has been situated in the former Monastery of the Order of St. Clare, which together with the adjoining church is a national cultural monument.
The large territory between the Small Carpathians and the river Váh, including the city of Trnava, was given as a wedding gift to Constance of the Arpád family, the aunt of King Béla IV of Hungary. Her marriage to Czech King Otakar Přemysl I was to resolve the long lasting disputes on the frontiers. After her death, Béla IV became the owner of Trnava. In 1238, he promoted it to an independent royal city. The medieval society supported the mendicant orders that settled in the outskirts of the economically prosperous cities. In respect to his sister, Elizabeth of Thuringia, who was declared a saint in 1235, he ordered the construction of a small Chapel of St. Elizabeth. He thus created a place for a group of young girls and women to follow the teaching of Saint Clare of Assisi.
The nuns of the St. Clare order are mentioned in the document of Béla IV in 1240. The building of the monastery and church dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and All Saints started around 1256. Initially, the complex consisted of the church and only one residential building – today’s central monastery wing. The building had at least two floors. A large fire damaged part of the monastery and church in 1325. The complex was newly rebuilt in gothic style in the last third of the 14th century. Throughout the 16th century, Hungary experienced the Estates’ uprisings, Ottoman war, rapid advancement of the Reformation and the decline of religious institutions caused by the secularization of their property. At the beginning of the 17th century, the monastery was in a desolate state. During the unsettled atmosphere of the 17th century, the nuns left the town several times. This meant the early baroque reconstruction of the monastery did not continue until 1622, when they returned to Trnava.
The building served as the monastery of the Order of St. Clare until 1872, when Joseph II abolished the order and gave the building to the army. Subsequently, it became a hospital and after 1850 a military hospital specializing in mental illness. When the museum took over the building, it was in a desolate state. Gradually, it began with the repair works. The reconstruction and modernization of the Western Slovak Museum in Trnava in 2015 helped to improve the area of the former Trnava monastery, which carries an extraordinary urban value. It also helped other monumental values and was followed by landscaping the surroundings and entrance interior.
Jaroslava Žuffová – Milan Kazimír
Renovation of the city house No 5 at Trinity Square in Trnava
The National cultural monument, the city house No 5 on Trinity Square in Trnava is situated on the main square, which is the natural centre of the city’s historical zone. It sits in the fully preserved area of the square, which was built in the 13th century after the city received its privileges and the place became the main city market.
House No 5 is located in the centre of the square’s northern side. It has undergone a complex constructional development, the result of which is a three-wing, two-storey structure with a passage in C-shaped ground plan. After the last reconstruction in between the wars and nationalization process in the second half of the 20th century, the house was neglected and the courtyard’s statics seriously disrupted. It was the right time to start with the complex renovation. This was preceded by architectural-historical and artistic-historical research, which brought a number of findings and new insights into the period-style development of the house.
The aim of the restoration was to return the building to the classicist style and preserve the historical interior elements. The house was preserved in its entire historical range, including many original period-style elements (stone-masonic, carpentry, stucco and blacksmith’s), coming from the different development stages of the building since the Middle Ages. The reconstruction of the Renaissance passage portal can be described as unique, untraditional. The renewed portal received a gate, which was built according to the period-style analogies of the monument fund of Trnava’s historical zone.
Former water mills of Trnava
The prosperous and functional economic background, or the food self-sufficiency of the city of Trnava, helped to boost its social and economic growth in the past. The milling of grain has been the fundamental manufacturing activity in the processing of agricultural produce. In Trnava, the flour was milled in the Stone Mill from the Middle Ages to the second half of the 20th century. The mills boundary walls can still be seen up to today. The Inner Mill, which was situated in the fortified centre of Trnava, was unique in Slovakia. Unfortunately, after four centuries of its existence there are no remains. Today, a new stylized construction commemorates this monument in its original location. The Pažitný mill is also just a distant memory. The only preserved original mill is the Hrnčiarovský mill, which was rejuvenated by its owners and today is an attractive place for relaxation and gastronomy.
- Vedenie, história, štruktúra
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