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HEREIN

Friday, June 22, 2012

herein  Council of Europe

CHANGING PERSPECTIVES ON THE HERITAGE

THEME 1.

1.1 Co-operation between private and public initiatives

Cultural heritage protection in the Slovak Republic belongs to the administration of the Ministry of Culture, which 50 years ago established specialized institution - Institute of monuments preservation for this purpose. The Institute of monuments preservation, in the statute - is in charge of activity from science through performing of the protection research, processing of methodologies, up to the practical supervision by the renewal and restoration so as the practical performance of the monuments restoration. The care for the state of cultural monuments is first of all the duty of owners. The state can pay to the owners a part of costs for the repair and renewal through the funds especially established for this purpose, but it is only a part of the required amount. This support is without claims.

The citizen initiatives were restricted and isolated because of the political system during the period of the socialism; they represented mainly the initiatives of young people with the protecting ambitions, e.g. SZOPK (Slovak Association of Nature Beauty Protectors), Strom života (the Life tree). Both these initiatives were in the rule environmentally directed, they aimed also at the cultural heritage protection. They were successful in concrete activities (rescue of a mill in Kvačianska dolina) and moreover they raised also the medial campaign (Rescue the treasure - the revitalization of the water-supply system in Banská Štiavnica). Private initiatives de facto did not exist.

After the year 1989 the official possibility arose to establish voluntary organizations and foundations with the Act of the Slovak National Council No 83/1990, what opened the "limits" for the until hampered non-state citizen initiatives.

At present more voluntary organizations and foundations are registered only in the field of the cultural heritage, of that ca. 100 are commonly active towards the different fields of the protection and utilization of cultural heritage. In the beginning isolated initiatives were lately integrated with the ambition to create a common platform named Native country - forum for the cultural heritage for the non-profit non-government organizations. The aim of this platform is the support and the co-ordination of the common interests in the field of the cultural heritage. Further the providing of the public support of the curbing conditions for the protection and the valorization of the cultural heritage and their integration into the developing intentions of the society. Finally the unification of the requirements and stimulations towards the state sector e.g. in the relationship to the inputs into the legislative.

Official support for the activities from the view of the state is direct possible, in the way of grants for the concrete projects.

The co-operation between the state and non-government organizations is frequent and common, but the most visible sign is Expo of the cultural heritage in the Slovakia - NOSTALGIA, where it is possible to see the activity presentations on the rescue and protection of the cultural heritage by all types of institutions and organizations, government and non-government organizations, commercial companies, foundations, associations and corporations.

The present changes in the cultural heritage protection are first of all the reflection of the universal changes in the last twelve years and they give especially:
- Changes in the property relationships (e.g. the state share on the property ownership of the immovable monuments decreased from 36% in the year 1988 to 16% in the year 2001 and on the contrary the share of the private sector increased from 24% to 37%),
- The transformation of the part of the government competencies in the field of the cultural heritage protection to the self-governing organs of municipalities and upper territorial units,
- The preparation of changes in the way of the funding of the protection and renewal of the cultural heritage,
- Legislative changes (new Act on the Monuments fund was adopted by the parliament after a several-year preparation, with the effect since 1st April 2002).
- The transformation of the Institute of monuments preservation into the authority with the strengthened competencies.

1.2 Heritage contribution to sustainable development

Cultural heritage as the integrated part of the environment got its importance of the adequate position to the "sustainable development" by the processing of the national strategy in the special part, according to the country character and the historical development of the Slovakia, which affected partially considerable urbanization of the territory in the last periods. The intention of this part of the National agenda 21 is on the basis of the knowledge to use effectively existing capacities of the space-material structures with the particular emphasis on the monumental protected areas and subjects. At the same time the question of the observation of the primary sources (e.g. preferences for the maintenance instead of the radical modernization), the creation of new work places (by the establishment of the operations aimed at the use of the traditional materials and products) and the preservation of the country character (by the elimination of country depopulation and mass migration to towns) should be examined. These questions were detailed elaborated on the concrete model territory also in the framework of the pilot project, which is the Regional agenda 21 for the Middle Pohronie, elaborated for the chosen area of the Slovakia in the year 1999.

Government and non-Government organizations work together on another many projects, which aimed:
- To sign factors, which work in this area and relations between them (ecology, economy and the social field influence here each other)
- To propose the steps like the systematic care and aimed utilization of the cultural heritage can contribute to the permanent sustainable development.
The point is the long-term activities and therefore it is too early to speak about the concrete results.

THEME 2. AGENTS (ORGANISATION AND PEOPLE)

2.1 National administration

2.1.1 Competent institutions

The central state organ on this section is the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic according to the valid Act of the Slovak National Council No. 27/1987 on the Institute of Monuments Preservation.

According to the Act on the Local State Administrative, the responsible organs in the field of the Institute of monuments preservation in the single regions (8) and districts (79) are Regional authorities - Cultural department and Local authorities - Regional development department.

The Central organization of the Institute of monuments preservation was established for the specialized activity in this field - it was the Institute of monuments preservation in Bratislava, which established subsidiaries - 8 regional centers (in the regional towns) and 15 work places and offices on the whole Slovak territory.

The Act which parliament adopted on 19th December 2001 (coming into the effect on 1st April 2002) creates a specialized state administration for the monuments protection through the transformation from the Institute of monuments preservation into the Monuments preservation authority in the area of the monuments protection.

2.1.2 Addresses of the institutions

Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic
Nám. SNP č. 33
813 33 Bratislava
Slovak Republic

Cultural heritage department
General manager
Mgr. Lenhart Jozef

Tel: +421/2/59 391 415, +421/2/54 415 629 
Fax: +421/2/59 391 476

Monuments preservation department

The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic
Cesta na Červený most č. 6, 814 06 Bratislava, Slovakia

General director
Katarína KOSOVÁ, PhD
Tel.: +421/2/5477 4785
E-Mail: kosova.katarina@heritage.sk, kosova.katarina@pamiatky.gov.sk

Operator: +421/2/5477 4444, 5477 1902, 5477 5876
Fax: +421/2/5477 5844
E-Mail: podatelna@pamiatky.gov.sk
oua@pamiatky.gov.sk
uzkp@pamiatky.gov.sk

2.1.3 Personnel working on conservation

Ministry of culture - Section of Cultural heritage had a total of 38 staff, including 8 employees of Department of Cultural Monuments.

Department of Cultural Monuments 8 staff
Institute of Monuments Preservation 187 staff
Local and regional authorities in SR 90 staff
Archaeological Institute of SAV + archeologists in Museums ca. 40 staff
Total in the Slovakia 325 staff

2.7 National training structures

Secondary schools, Universities and Institutes, Other forms of education and courses

Secondary schools
Special secondary school for wood industries
Stredná odborná škola drevárska
Pavlovičova 3, 821 04 Bratislava
Furniture, wood - restoration and preservation

Secondary technical school of S. Mikovini
Stredná priemyselná škola S. Mikoviniho
Akademická 11, 969 15 Banská Štiavnica
Stone, plasters, paintings, ceramics, porcelain - restoration and preservation

Secondary technical school of S. Stankoviansky
Stredná priemyselná škola S. Stankovianskeho
Akademická 13, 969 25 Banská Štiavnica
Paper, old printings, books, textiles - restoration and preservation

Secondary school of the industrial design
Škola úžitkového výtvarníctva
Dúbravská cesta 9, 842 05 Bratislava
Ceramics, porcelain, stone, textiles, wood - restoration and preservation

Secondary school for arts
Stredná umelecká škola
Slavkovská 19, 060 01 Kežmarok

Universities and Institutes

Academy of arts - Faculty of plastic arts
Akadémia umení - Fakulta výtvarných umení
J. Kolára 21, 974 01 Banská Bystrica

Slovak Technical University - Faculty of Architecture
Slovenská technická univerzita - Fakulta architektúry
Nám. Slobody 19, 812 45 Bratislava
Department of history of architecture and art (Katedra dejín architektúry a umenia)
Department of protection and creation in the monumental area (Katedra ochrany a tvorby v pamiatkovom prostredí)
Department of architectural theory, art and design (Katedra teórie architektúry, umenia a designu)

Technical university - Fakulty of the industrial design
Technická univerzita - Fakulta úžitkových umení
Letná 9, 042 00 Košice

University of Trnava - Faculty of humanism
Trnavská univerzita - Fakulta humanistiky
Hornopotočná 23, 917 00 Trnava

University of Cyril and Method - Faculty of Philosophy
Univerzita Cyrila a Metoda - Filozofická fakulta
J. Herdu nám. 2, 917 01 Trnava

Comenius University - Faculty of Philosophy
Gondova 2, 818 01 Bratislava
Department of archeology (Katedra archeológie)
Plastic arts history department (Katedra dejín výtvarného umenia)
Ethnology department (Katedra etnológie)
Department of Cultural Science (Katedra kulturológie)

University of the Constantine Philosoph - Faculty of Philosophy
Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa - Filozofická fakulta
A. Hlinku tr. 1, 949 74 Nitra
Department of archeology (Katedra archeológie)
Department of history (Katedra histórie)
Ethnology department (Katedra etnológie)

Mathew Bel University - Faculty of humanities
Univerzita Mateja Bela - Fakulta humanitných vied
Národná 12, 974 01 Banská Bystrica

Institute for plastic arts
Vysoká škola výtvarných umení
Hviezdoslavovo nám. 18, 814 37 Bratislava
Department of architecture (Katedra architektúry)
Restoration department (Katedra reštaurovania)
Department of theory and history of plastic arts (Katedra teórie a dejín výtvarného umenia)

Other forms of education
Academia Istropolitana Nova
Prostredná 13, 921 01 Sv. Jur

Craftsmen
The center for artistic craftsmanship in Kežmarok (Centrum umeleckých remesiel v Kežmarku)
The folklore festival in Hrušov - Courts in Hrušov (Folklórny festival v Hrušove - Hrušovské dvory), which is aimed mainly at craftsmanships.
The Festival Koliesko in Kokava nad Rimavicou, where it is possible to attend dance classes, but e.g. also pottery classes, course of basket production and other industrial and artistic objects made of sticks and other nature materials and where it is possible to see live the work with the wood and smith works.

Strom života - holiday stays - courses aimed at the excavation archaeological works under the leadership of qualified archeologists.
The best-known summer camp for young archeologists is Kláštorisko in the community Letanovce in the region of Spišská Nová Ves.

The institute for public administration is established for the education of the state administration employees.

The Faculty of architecture of the Slovak technical university Bratislava prepares the post-gradual study aimed at the monuments protection.
THEME 3. FINANCIAL POLICY

3.1 Public funding sources

3.1.1 State

Cultural heritage represents the irreplaceable richness of the country and provides a whole range of possibilities of its economic development. The care for the monuments fund is not a burden, as it from the point of view of the administrators of the public financial means mostly perceived is, but a capital, into which to invest purposefully and continuously will be paid back. The valorisation of investments is considered as one of the best, most ecological and practically most stabile instruments of the whole country. The omitting of the protection and preservation of the monuments fund but may become a big burden for the public budget, as it is shown in the situation of the Slovak Republic.

The present state of the support of the monuments preservation fund in the Slovak Republic is in all its points signed with the development of the "state monuments preservation" up to the year 1989 and mainly of the more than forty-year long continuity interruption of the owner relationships. The long-term omitting of the maintenance of the preserved monuments fund in spite of the fact that the significant part of the state financial means (around 1 billion Kčs a year) was invested into the monuments renewal in time of socialistic economic system, the results of this state preservation are problematical.

In the period of the transformation after the year 1989, so in the period of the "privatising" of the monuments fund, arose a sharp drop of the direct public sources orientated towards the monuments preservation. Individual subrogation of the finances provided by the state for the renewal and maintenance of monuments in hands of non-state owners came after the year 1994, when the total quantity of the public means, which were released in this way, were reduced on one quarter in comparison with the year 1993.

The unfavourable state is seen also at the present situation at the market with the immovable cultural monuments, where there is a relatively low demand and a very narrow spectrum of interested persons for their purchase.

The situation in the State cultural fund "Pro Slovakia" (ŠFK) provides evidence for the development in the field of the direct state financial aid to the non-state owners of the monuments. The total volume of the state support to the monuments preservation through the budget of this fund from the year 1993 to the year 2001 was continuously decreasing. The nominal expenses for the renewal of the cultural monuments from the fund:
132 million SKK in the year 1992 decreased to 24.505 million SKK in the year 1999, 22.95 million SKK in the year 2000 and 19.80 million SKK in the year 2001.

The position of the monuments funding in the framework of ŠFK, where around 65% of the total fund budget was determined for the monuments preservation in 1993, was reduced to 22% from the year 1994 to the year 2000. The biggest drop of the ratio of the fund means determined for the monuments preservation in comparison with its total budget came in the year 1997 (12.2%) and in the year 1998 (only 7.7%). Grants from the state budget provided through ŠFK "Pro Slovakia" increased to 33% in the year 2000, but when it was expressed in Slovak crowns, it represented only 22.95 million SKK.

For the comparison we mention the requirements for the contribution from this fund in years 1999-2001:

Provided Required
1999 24,505,000 138,638,610
2000 22,950,000 650,920,507
2001 19,495,000 124,322,372

Further direct monetary state support runs through the chapters of the Regional authorities and to them linked budgets of the Local authorities according to §16 of the Act No 27/1987 of the Slovak National Council on the State monuments preservation.

In the year 2000 the financial state support represented one seventh of the means in the year 1992, whereby the positive drop in the quantity of the singled means for the contributions for the monuments renewal came also in this field in the year 1994. The average satisfaction of the requirements for the contribution to the monuments preservation from this source fluctuated around 1.3% in the period from the year 1997 to the year 2000.

In the period of the years 1993 - 1994 the means singled for the maintenance and renewal of the sacral monuments were practically stopped according to the Act No 218/1949 on the Economic Security of Churches and Religious Societies. It is known that our most valuable cultural monuments are in the ownership of Churches, the maintenance, renewal and security of which is in comparison with other cultural monuments most expensive (expensive restoration works, static security, security of the equipment and movables against thefts and others).

740.3 million SKK was from the state budget spent on the renewal and maintenance of the cultural monuments in the state ownership according to the annual statistic statement of monuments preservation funding, which was summarily set up for the first time for the year 2000. The state financial support for the renewal and maintenance of the cultural monuments in the ownership of municipalities, Churches, legal and natural persons represented summarily for the whole Slovakia 29.6 million SKK, that is 3.8% in comparison with the state means aimed at this area.


The possibilities of the support for the preservation of the monuments fund except for the cultural resort

It is possible to gain a direct financial aid for the preservation of the monuments of the country type in the framework of the country renewal, realized in the direction and co-ordination of Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic through the mediation of the Slovak environmental agency. The means of the program are determined only for chosen regions and municipalities, whereby the applicant may be only an organ of local self-government.

Another volumes of contributions for the funding of the preservation of the monuments fund was possible to gain sporadically of the means of:
- General cash report (extracts of lotteries and other similar games),
- Traffic development support program
- State fund of housing development
- Housing development support program
Means from these sources are released non-systematically and with a high fluctuation.

It was possible to apply for the support of historical greens, which is the part of the monuments fund, at the Slovak fund of environment under the direction and co-ordination of the Government department for the environment.

Since the next year another possibility will be the application for the support in the framework of the country development programs. These were elaborated in co-operation with the European Committee in the framework of the European Union program of the agriculture and country development SAPARD and they will be realized through the mediation of the SAPARD agency under the direction and co-ordination of the Government department for public works, whereby Slovak Republic has to share on the funding of single projects. The projects in the framework of the so-called diversification activities in the country area are worth considering in the relationship to the monuments fund according to § 5 of the Slovak Government provision No 316/2001 on the Development Programs of Agriculture and Country. The point is the investments into:
1. Profit projects for the restoration and modernization of the recreation and accommodation equipments of the past agricultural apparatuses, which lost their original purpose, their reconstruction to the agro-tourist objects, the development of the complementary productions, production of the traditional materials and products, which serve the development of the tourist activities, development of the relaxation and recreation activities (investments in the scale from minimum 24 thousand EURO to maximum 24 million EURO for a single project.,
2. Non-profit objects modernization of the buildings with the historical, cultural importance and of their surroundings (investments in the scale from minimum 24 thousand EURO to maximum 120,300 EURO for a single project).

The drawing of means in the framework of this program is not possible up to now for none of nine SAPARD program proceedings is not yet "accredited" in Brussels. Slovakia can draw these means if the accreditation for their utilization will be gained, together with the year 2002, in the amount of three billion.

Another possibility to gain the support from the structural fund of European Union, and directly for the culture, is the program CULTURE 2000. This program enables to gain means for the support of the specific innovation or experiment projects in the field of cultural heritage - monuments fund preservation. The program conditions for the gain of the support means of the European Union for the concrete projects:
3. Contract among minimum three operators from different states, which are participated on the project,
4. The multiplication effect in the form of creation of permanent and extensive forms of co-operation among partners, the cost share released for the project from the European Union Fund with the maximum 60% - sometimes 80% of the total projects budget,
5. The duration period of the project realization - minimum one year, maximum three years.

The cost payments not before the end of each year, after the check of the realized work and accounting approval trough a separate committee, are as much realization demanding that they are practically administrative infeasible. In coherence of this fact the Ministers of Culture of single countries linked up with this program will meat in December 2001 to concern with the causes of the low interest in putting forward concrete projects. In the year 2000 it was possible to apply for the support of projects which were aimed at protection, renewal and presentation of the architectonic heritage "in the state ownership, coming from the 19th and 20th century" in the field of cultural heritage under the fulfilment of above mentioned general conditions.

The conditions would probably be simplified according to the meeting results of Ministers of culture. Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic established so-called, for the program prescribed, cultural contact point, which should administrate the preparation, putting forward and approval of projects for the Slovak Republic. The cultural heritage support will be taken into account as the priority in the framework of the program in the year 2004.

3.1.2 Regional and local government

The owner of cultural monument has the right to exert the tax exemption according to the Act No 317/1992 of the National Council of the Slovak Republic.

a) According to § 4 section 1ch)

- Grounds exempt from the tax are: grounds in the protected areas and protected natural creations and monuments.

b) According to § 9 section 1j)

6. Buildings exempt from the tax are: fifteen-year long protection protected houses, houses in municipal protection reservations, folk architecture reservations and in protection zones, the reconstruction of which will renew or extend the housing fund.
7. Grounds and buildings are exempt from the tax only if they are not used for the undertaking or self-employment activity or lease. If the exemption conditions are related to a part of the building, only this part is exempt from the tax.

Many towns and villages created funds, which follow for example the renewal of roofs with the purpose of the new utilization of these spaces.

3.3 Aids and grants - Public support

3.3.1 Direct aid


Up to the year 1989 the state monuments preservation spent for the monuments renewal in overage 1 billion of Kčs annually, but the results were more than problematic. In the transformation period after the year 1989 came the decrease of the direct state sources in the field of monuments preservation and in the year 2000 through the mediation of state organs and organizations run into the maintenance and renewal of monuments ca. 620 million SKK.

The direct financial state support runs further by means of chapters of Regional authorities and with it linked budgets of the local authorities according to § 16 Act No 27/1987 of the Slovak National Council On state monuments preservation. In the year 2000 it represented 127 millions.

Another direct state aid for the cultural monuments renewal through the mediation of State fund for culture "Pro Slovakia" dropped from 132 million SKK in the year 1992 to 23 million SKK in the year 2000.

It is possible to gain irregular contributions for the preservation funding of the monuments fund from the means:
- General cash administration (extracts from lotteries and other similar games),
- Traffic development support program,
- State fund for environment
- State fund for housing development
- Housing development support program

Approximately 740 million SKK was spent of the state sources for the renewal and maintenance of cultural monuments in the state ownership according to the annual statistic statement on monuments preservation funding in Slovakia in the year 2000.

The state financial support by the renewal and maintenance of the cultural monuments in the ownership of municipalities, Churches, legal and natural persons represented 30 million SKK in the whole Slovakia.

It is possible to gain a direct financial support for the preservation of monuments of the country type in the framework of the Village renewal program through the mediation of the Slovak environmental agency. The means of the program are determined only for chosen regions and municipalities, whereby the applicant for the contribution can only be the organ of the local self-government.

It is possible to apply for the support for the preservation of historical greens, which is the part of the monuments fund, in the Slovak fund for environment under the direction and co-ordination of the government department for Environment.

Since the next year the application for the support in the framework of the country development programs, which were elaborated in the co-operation with the European Committee and are going to be realized through the mediation of the agency SAPARD, will be possible.

The projects in the framework of the so-called diversifications activities in the country area can be taken into the consideration in the relation to the monuments fund according to § 5 Statutory Order of the Slovak Republic No 316/2001 on Developing Programs of the Agriculture and Country. It is the following investments into:
8. Profit projects of the reconstruction and modernization of the recreational and accommodating equipments, which lost their original purpose, their design for the agro-tourist objects, the development of the supplementary productions, the production of the traditional materials and products, which serve to the tourist activities development, the development of relaxing and recreating activities (investments in the scale from minimum 24 thousand EURO to maximum 24 million EURO per project),
9. Non-profit projects of the buildings modernization of the historical, cultural significance and of their surroundings (investments in the scale from minimum 24 thousand EURO to
10. maximum 120,300 EURO for one project).

The drawing of means in the framework of this program will be possible as late even after the accreditation in the amount of three billions along with the year 2002.

Another possibility is the support from the structural funds of the program CULTURE 2000. This program enables to gain means for the support of specific innovation or experimental projects in the cultural heritage field. The program conditions for the gaining of support means from the European Union for the concrete projects are:
11. A contract among at least three operators form different countries taking part on the program,
12. A multiplication effect in the form of the creation of permanent and enormous co-ordination forms among partners, the cost share released for the project from the fund of the European Union of the maximum amount 60% (occasionally 80% of the total budget of projects),
13. The duration period of the project realization minimum a year maximum three years.

3.3.2 Tax relief

The criteria of the direct financial support to the monuments preservation is not the only criteria, which gives evidence on the quality and society care standard for this type of the national richness.

Because the whole system of funding and indirect support of the monuments preservation is only newly created, it is necessary to elaborate the public interest preference tools of the indirect support in the form of tax rebates like these:
14. Reduction of the tax base,
15. Reduction of the value added tax for entrepreneurs who invest into cultural monuments,
16. The possibility of the accelerated depreciation of the acquiring price by the purchase of a destroyed cultural monument and of the means spent for its renewal,
17. Release of the accession tax and of other transfer of the destroyed cultural monument,
18. Accelerated depreciation of investments into the protection, maintenance, renewal, security, utilization and opening of the cultural monuments to the public.
19. The indirect state support by the monument restoration, where the owner will pay only a part of the actual cost of the restoration, is also considered.

The owner of the cultural monument has the right to claim the tax exemption according to the Act No 317/1992 of the National Council of the Slovak Republic:

a) According to § 4 section 1ch)
- Grounds exempt from the ground tax are: grounds in protected territories and protected natural creations and monuments.

b) According to § 9 section 1j)
20. Buildings exempt from the building tax: fifteen-year long protection protected houses, houses in municipal protection reservations, folk architecture reservations and in monuments zones, the reconstruction of which will renew or extend the housing fund.
21. Grounds and buildings are exempt from the tax only if they are not used for the undertaking or other self-employment activity or lease. If the conditions for the tax exemption are related only to a part of the site, only this part is exempt from the tax.

THEME 4. KNOWLEDGE AND PROTECTION

4.1 Inventories and documentation

4.1.1 Competent institutions

General Inventory of the Cultural Monuments (GIM) of Slovakia

The Institute of Monuments Preservation in Bratislava, is responsible for the General Inventory of the Cultural Monuments (GIM) of Slovakia. The Institute was founded in 1951. A basic field investigation of the heritage was carried out in the period 1953-1960, with further investigations being undertaken throughout the 1960s.

This monument inventory has been drawn up with the help of about 40 members of the Institute's staff. Additional and specific studies have been carried out with the collaboration of scientific institutes and schools of advanced studies. At the outset, the research was undertaken without the use of any precise terminological vocabulary or approved concepts, but this was remedied in due course. Special record sheets, with fixed headings, have been used for the inventory of the rural heritage.

The List of Monuments in Slovakia was the outcome of the inquiry that was published in three volumes, listed in alphabetical order and by place, in 1967-1969. Volume IV was published in 1978. It contains photographs of the most outstanding monuments, and it summarizes the data presented in the first three volumes. The List of Monuments contains approximately 30 000 entries. The original materials acquired as a result of this investigation are part of, for example, the "Z" Fund documentation.

Development of the GIM

As in France, Law no. 7/1958 of the Slovak National Council concerning cultural monuments was designed to help protect two categories of monuments, and to create State inventories. These concerned four regions: Bratislava, eastern Slovakia, central Slovakia, and western Slovakia.

l. The first category concerned monuments entered in the List of Monuments (as in France).
2. The second category concerned monuments entered in the State Inventory (in France these are known as "classified" monuments - monuments classés).

The monuments entered in the State Inventory were more stringently protected than those entered in the List of Monuments.

The monuments entered in the State Inventory were selected in accordance with Law No.7/1958 and with the criteria that were valid at that time (some 8,000 documents).

In 1987, the Slovak National Council adopted a new law concerning the safeguarding of monuments. This law no. 27/1987 is still in force, and has created the legal basis for the establishment of the General Inventory of Monuments (GIM) in Slovakia. The GIM was set up in 1988.

Law No. 27 only recognizes one category of protected monuments - those monuments that are entered in the General Inventory (in France, monuments classés). This law does not protect monuments in the List.

The following have been entered in the GIM, in accordance with the law:

1. All monuments previously entered in the State Inventory.
2. All properties/assets recognized as monuments by the Ministry of Culture.

The List of Monuments and the four regional State Inventories served as sources ~~ the creation of the GIM. The monuments in the State Inventory have been entered directly, but the items entered in the List had to go through an approval procedure in order to be legally declared monuments.

The approval procedure consists of 5 points:

1. The proposal to declare a property a monument may be put forward by the citizen associated with the property in question, by an organization or by the qualified administration.

2. A professional organization must submit an expert opinion: the "professional proposal".

3. The Administrator of the GIM advises the owner about the proposal, as well as the qualified administration in the region.

4. The proposal of the professional organization, the owner and the qualified administration in the region form the basis of the decision of the Ministry of Culture to declare a property a monument, or turn down the proposal.

5. The Administrator of the GIM enters the monuments in the GIM after the official declaration.

The GIM in Slovakia is the sum of the various endeavors that have been made. To date, it contains 12 700 monuments that are fixed properties, and 14 000 monuments that are "moveable" assets. But in 10 villages, measures have also been introduced to protect complexes of rural architecture.

The GIM is made up of three standard components and the Automatic Register (AR).
The three standard components are:
1. The register
2. The index of record sheets
3. The supplement collection - the GIM documentation.

Computerization helps not only to process a large amount of information and data, but it also enables to apply more precise definitions to certain concepts.
Initial utilization of computers and data-processing in this field dates back to the period 1978-1985, but the first effectual results came with the installation of the PC. The AR was computerized in 1988-1989. It combines the data from two standard components. It did not comprise originally two important types of data - the identification photograph and the free description, but the present software (type SQL) enables to combine data with photographs, graphics and free texts. One began to collect them gradually and to add them to databases.

AR, which was originally used mainly for administrative purposes, is still more used also by the specialists after the addition of visual information.

The AR has the status of a sub-system. The system consists of three sub-systems: the basis of the system is the AR, to which are added the documentary sub-system and the factual sub-system.

The AR model has two levels. The first refers to cultural monuments, the second ~ "items" that have the status of monuments. A monument consists of an "item" or it may consist of several "items".

For example:
1. A church is a single item, so the monument is the church and the item is also the church.
2. The church may also comprise: a chapel or chapels, sculpture(s), a bell-tower, churchyard walls, etc. So the monument is the church together with the churchyard, and a certain number of items are the church, the chapel, etc.

4.1.2 Types of inventories

Obligatory thesaurus is used by the actualisation, addition of new data and new monuments. The AR date serve as the basis for the creation of GIS, which is preferably filled with the data on monuments in the localities, which are written in the inventory of the world heritage.

Institute of monuments preservation in Bratislava registers the General Inventory of the Cultural Monuments of Slovak Republic - of the monument fund. Regional and Local authorities register the Inventories of monuments of their territorial districts on the basis of extracts, which the Institute of monuments preservation sends them in one-year, two-year interval. One does not register special thematic inventories, but the extracts on the basis of type itemization of monuments are performed for specialists, e.g. for the historical greens.

The immovable monuments are itemized according to the type differentiation:
- Architectural monuments
- Folk architecture monuments
- Historical monuments
- Historical green monuments
- Archaeological monuments
- Technical monuments
- Artistic monuments

Numbers of monuments see in Chapter 7.1.

1. Recently, we were creating the database for "movable" monuments, but it was necessary to create a link between the inventory of "movable" monuments and the inventory of "fixed" monuments.

2. The updating of the files, which were not fully established, has not been carried out.

3. The data for the monument had to be cumulative, but what was even more important, was to complement the database with the identification photograph, the drawing of the plane section, the location, and the description.

4. The documentary sub-base had been created.

5. The most important issue was to devise the model for the description of monuments consisting of a set of items. The model, which had to be precise without being complicated, described what actually existed in the field. It was also necessary to determine the number of levels, and the feature of these levels.

a. Systems for protection

4.2.2 Urban planning and environment legislation

The Government of the Slovak Republic adopted measures for the realization of the rescue conception of cultural heritage of the Slovak Republic in a decree on 8th January 1991. In the measures the Government imposed the Minister of Environment and Minister of culture to shift the revitalization of historical cores of cities, the rescue of cultural monuments, monuments reservations and zones by means of the territorial plan and construction order.

This process is permanent and continuous and is directed by the Construction Act No 50/1976, which was several times novelised during the years 1991 - 2001. The necessities projection of monuments preservation into the "territorial plans" was displayed significantly in 127 settlements (villages and towns), where the municipal monuments reservations (18), monuments reservations of folk architecture (10) and monuments zones (89) are declared.

The protection principles of the monuments territory are the basis for the elaboration of the territorial-planning documentation according to the Construction Act. It is a duty to elaborate the special part devoted to the monuments preservation on each level of the territorial plan according to the last amendment of the Construction Act.

AU SAV (Archaeological Institution of the Slovak Science Academy) registers the archaeological localities central evidence, which also serves as the basis by the construction approval on the territory, besides the archaeological monuments in Slovakia.

4.2.3 Heritage Protection: effects and implementation

The assumptions for the effective cultural heritage protection from the destruction including the war and natural catastrophe are created in the legal system of the Slovak Republic.
The effectiveness of this protection depends on:
1. The ability of relevant organs including their inspection items to shift these laws equally in today's practice, what is the problem of all post-communist countries of the Central and Eastern Europe.
2. The ability of cooperation between two supporting resorts, which are responsible for the protection of the natural and cultural heritage - the resort of culture and the resort of environment.

4.2.4 Responsibilities structure for protection

The Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic is the central state organ in the section of state monument preservation.

Regional authorities - Departments for culture and Local authorities - Departments for the regional development are responsible in single regions (8) and districts (79) according to the Act on Local State Administration.

The Institute of monuments preservation in Bratislava is the central professional workplace in this field, which has the subsidiaries established on the whole Slovak territory - 8 regional centres (in regional cities) and 15 workplaces and offices.

The Act, which the parliament adopted on 19th December 2001 (with the effect since 1st April 2002), creates the specialized state administration for the monuments protection through the transformation of the Institute of monuments preservation to the Office of monuments preservation of the Slovak Republic. This act strengthens the task of professionals at the same time, when their competences are shifted from the opinions level into the official decision level and from the regional and local authorities to the Regional monuments offices and Office of monuments preservation, respectively some competencies are shifted up to the self-government organs, which arose on 1st January 2002.

The organization security structure of archaeological findings and localities protection:

1. The Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic
2. Regional and Local authorities
3. Communities - they create the workplaces for the purpose of the professional administration, documentation, utilization, propagation and presentation of archaeological localities and archaeological findings.
4. Institute of monuments preservation Bratislava
5. Archaeological institute SAV Nitra
6. Slovak National Museum Bratislava and other museums, citizen associations, foundations, non-governmental organizations, regional associations, which contribute to the rescue and presentation of archaeological findings and localities to a large extend.

THEME 5. PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT

5.1 Protection work on heritage

5.1.1 Contracting authorities

The owner of the monuments is responsible for the state and so for the renewal of these monuments according to the valid acts. In the case that the point is a state property, the organ or the organization, which on behalf of the state administrates this property, is responsible for it. These state institutions are in the prevailing majority the contracting authorities of works by the renewal and restoration of monuments.

5.1.2 Contractor

In the framework of the market space, which arose in Slovakia during 12 years, the contractors of works can be the companies, which are chosen on the basis of the procuring process - tender. The originally valid Act on the Monuments Preservation regulated the predisposition for these operations only in the minimum extend.

The Act on Monuments fund, which will come into force on 1st April 2002, comprises the provisions, according to which commissions by the Ministry of Culture will be established and they will check the predisposition of legal and natural persons for single activities. The Ministry of Culture will issue (respectively take back) the certificates of professional predisposition on the basis of proposals of these commissions.

The projection and restoration works in the field of monuments fund can be carried out only by persons, who have the professional predisposition according to the peculiar provisions (the Act on Restorers Chamber and the Act on Authorized Architects and Builders).

5.1.3 Selection of contractors

The way of the selection of a renewal, respectively restoration practitioner depends on the type of owner and funding source.

If the owner and funding source are not national (respectively public), the selection of the practitioner doesn't report the Act on Procurement, but the law terms, which refer to the professional predisposition, have to be observed.

In the case that the owner and the source are of the national respectively public origin, the organization has to proceed according to the Act No 263/99 on Public Procurement, in accordance with which the Guideline of the Ministry of Culture was elaborated, and of which we quote the main part:

THE GUIDELINE
On the proceeding by the Attendance of Goods, Construction Works and Depending Delivering Works and Services according to the Act No 263/99 on Public Procurement and of the Changes and Amendments of some acts

1. The aim of this guideline is to set a united and obligatory proceeding of all bodies of the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic (further only the "Ministry"), budgetary and contribution organizations in the establishing duty of the Ministry, by the exertion of the Act No 263/1999 on the Public Procurement and on the Changes and Amendments of Some Acts (further only act on public procurement), by the procurement of goods, services, works and performances paid from the budgetary chapter of the Ministry aimed at reaching their economic, effective and transparent utilization.

2. The provider, that is the leader of the relevant section of the Ministry, the statutory deputy of state budgetary or contribution organization or of state objective fund, is responsible for the observance of proceedings and methods according to the act on public procurement.

3. The providers' duty relates to the observance of:

- Products, appliances and other subjects prodded on the market and determined for the sale (good)

- Construction works and with them connected delivery works, which are necessary for the construction (work) making

- Financial, legal, trade and other services, (services)

- Operations, singled out in the services framework as their isolated part, paid by providers and regardless of the fact whether they provide the good, works, services and operations for the fulfillment of their tasks or for the provider requirements. The design works, normal reparation and maintenance are classified among the services.

1. By the quiet enjoyment, the provider is not obliged to use methods and proceedings of public observance, if the subject of observance is the acquirement of goods and services and the prices sum of the equal type of goods or services without the value added tax is maximum 500 thousand SKK and:

a) During the calendar year or

b) During the contract duration, if the contract is made for the longer period than a calendar year
c) And in case that the observation subject is operations providing, if the sum of all rewards and prices is maximum 500 thousand SKK for them.

2. If the provider buys the good or realizes services of equal type in a calendar year, where the price sum is up to maximum 500 thousand SKK, it is not possible to exceed this sum not only on the basis of the additional declaration of some public observation methods for the same good or services.

3. Provider is obliged to apply some of the public procurement methods if the subject is the delivery of works, of which the lump-sum price without value added tax during the contract duration including its clauses for the same or coherent contract subject-mater is maximum 1,000,000 SKK. Provider is obliged to proceed according to the act on public procurement by the exceeding of these lump-sum prices. The approval of the economics section of Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic is necessary for the beginning of all construction works.

4. The provider has the duty to announce the statement in the Gazette of Public Procurement according to individual annexes, which are the part of the act on public procurement as of this guideline, by the statement of the public procurement method in the form of public competition, closer competition and negotiating process with publishing. The information on the Gazette is announced on the address : http://www.uvo.gov.sk.

5.1.4 Programming of works

The owner or the vicarious professional, who has to be educated and skilled in engineering-investment activities by the monuments renewal, is responsible for the programming and works preparation. The norms for the equipment of monuments from the point of view of their safety, protection and provision are subordinated to the same acts as the buildings, which are not protected as monuments. The plans and calendars for their maintenance and renewal are elaborated according to these norms.

5.2 Use, re-use and enhancement

The discussion of professional, but also laic public, which aims the utilization and valorisation of monuments in the new market space according to their unique character and importance and if it is possible also in accordance with the necessities of their owners, runs over at present. The dialog among the "creators" and "protectors" goes through in the framework of the public discussion with the aim to clarify the limits and goals.

The "National strategy of permanent sustainable development" is individually applied in this respect as the model solution for the chosen region. The part of this model is also the monument utilization planning in the framework of the regional agenda.

5.3 Insertion of contemporary creative work

The lists of the top representatives of modern architecture, among which the most valuable were declared the cultural monuments or the proposals for their declaration are prepared, were elaborated in co-operation with the relevant professional organizations (DOCOMOMO,…). These lists are continuously actualised according to the need.

5.4 Prevention of natural disasters and human damage

The Institute of monuments preservation elaborated the "Methodical instructions for the concealment and spaces arrangements for the storage of cultural monuments under the military preparedness", which are valid also in the case of exposure to the natural catastrophe, in accordance with the Haag Deal on the Value Protection in the Case of a Military Conflict of 14th May 1954 and the Second Protocol to the Haag Deal of 26th March 1999. The part of the Methodical instructions is the Inventory of selected monuments, which is necessary to protect especially in the case of extraordinary situation rise. The basic (main) items of this material are:
1. The selection of cultural monument for the special protection,
2. The selection of the temporary safekeeping place,
3. The plan of protection and evacuation in connection with the possible risks analysis,
4. The content of the "Security documentation",
5. The plan elaboration process,
6. The professional instructions for the transport and safekeeping of movable cultural monuments.

This field is in the competence of the Department of defence and secret realities of the Ministry of culture, the department elaborated the more incorporated "Methodical instruction of cultural monuments protection by the rise of an extraordinary situation and in time of the state military preparedness" ordered by the state administration organ.

The monuments inventories of, which are related to these methodical instructions, are sent to the relevant state organs. It is necessary to accept this material as a regulation and so to gain the legal obligation because of the better monuments security. The regional idiosyncrasy and the rise of regional self-governments held up to a certain extend its universal acceptance as the co-operational items in the rescue process.

THEME 6. ACCESS AND INTERPRETATION

6.1 Public access to heritage

The aim of the cultural heritage protection is to preserve the inherited cultural values for another generations in the authentic state, to prevent the unfavourable development, to improve the monuments fund state and to raise its importance in the society life a with respect to the necessities of present community.

This aim can be reached only with the support of broad public, which can be gained by the means of opening and presentation of cultural heritage to the broad circle of persons showing interest. Cultural activities fixed to the firmly determined days are realized on this purpose besides the regular informing through the mass media, besides arrangement of topic expositions.

The most important of them are:
- The Day of Cultural Monuments 18th April each year
- The European Heritage Days
- The Fair of the Protection and Presentation of Cultural Heritage EXPO-NOSTALGIA, which takes place regularly at the turn of months November and December with the duration of one week. The fair took place on a very high level three times up to now.

One succeeded to involve many cultural institutions taking part in a protection and presentation of cultural heritage in the framework of The European Heritage Days in Slovakia in the last years. Another city, where the essential activities for the professional, but also laic public, with the attendance of the representatives of local self-government would take place, is chosen each year. But the different cultural actions (private views, introducing of works of literature and other works - CD-ROM) and days of open doors, take place on the whole Slovakia. In the year 2001 this director and coordinator city was the East-Slovakia City Rožňava as the cultural (but also economical) center of Gemer.

The Fair of the Protection and Presentation of Cultural Heritage EXPO-NOSTALGIA takes place regularly at the turn of months November and December with the duration of one week. The fair took place on a very high level three times up to now. Monuments institutions, restorers, museums, galleries, schools, science institutes, antiques shops, archives, libraries, publishing institutions, information centres, second-hand bookshops, foundations, clubs, associations, collectors (persons interested in numismatics, philatelists, toys collectors, furniture collectors), organizations providing services in this field from the design ateliers through the graphic studios up to the restorers' ateliers present here their records, products and protected fund.

Many regional and local activities take place besides these important campaigns; more www-pages with the free access for the campaign registration within Slovakia aim the cartography and presentation of them.

6.2 Raising awareness of young people

The secondary schools and Universities influence crucially the education of young people in this field - see the Chapter 2.7 on training structures. The permanent educational-promotional activity in this section perform the state institutions like the Institute of monuments preservation, museums and galleries, whereby they co-operate also with the schooling in their activities.

Besides this education, the activities of the Academia Istropolitana Nova, which leads courses in the field of the cultural heritage protection in English and for the adolescent youth not only from Slovakia, but also from abroad, deserve the attention.

The second non-state subject, which substantially shares the education of youth, is the organization Strom života. The subsidiaries of this subject organize mainly the holiday stays - courses aimed at the excavation archaeological works under the leadership of skilled archaeologists.

6.3 Tourism and Promotional activities

The cultural heritage and especially the monuments fund are the subject of the interest of home and foreign public and the sought-for goal of the cultural tourism. The attractiveness of cultural monuments, their surroundings, provision with necessary services, are the one of the basic presumptions of the existence and further development of cultural traffic. All activities and investments related with the preservation, renewal, utilization, accessibility of monuments fund and their milieu, have the multiplications effect for more sectors. The development of traffic, building industry, middle and small undertaking, utilization and renewal of traditional crafts and technologies, tradition material production, solution of unemployment and housing issue come together with the development of the care for the monument fund.

The document "The National Program of Traffic Development in the Slovak Republic", which was adopted by the Government Decree of the Slovak Republic No 185 of 28th February 2001, inquires into this issue in details. The decree adopted the measures for the support of the traffic development from the revision of legislative norms through the elaboration of conceptions and expert examinations, up to the organization changes and concrete steps for providing of financial and other necessities.

In connection with this, it is possible objectively to make use also of the sources determined for the economic development of regions and of the sources for the traffic development assistance for this purpose, for the support of utilization.

Nevertheless we can't forget that the guideline for the implementation of the Deal on the Cultural and Natural Heritage Protection, the General Conference UNESCO in Paris 1972 showed the traffic as the one of forms of monuments endangerment.
(Please see www.unesco.org/whc/opgutoc.htm)

Also the International Charter of Cultural Tourism, Brussels 1976, which defined the cultural tourism goal as the exploring of cultural settlements and monuments, pursued for this issue. This aim puts a big positive pressure on them and contributes to their maintenance and protection with these tasks:
- To keep monuments in such a state that they would stay attractive for tourists
- The necessity to respect the world cultural and natural heritage
- To pay regard to the levels of applicability by the utilization of tourist equipments
- The fixtures and services can't be in contradiction to the basic principles of cultural heritage respecting

And at last, the International Charter ICOMOS of Cultural Tourism, Mexico 1999 defined some principles of cultural tourism, of which we want to impress these:

- The relationship between the cultural heritage and tourism is dynamic and has to arch over the conflicts of values; it has to be directed in the permanent way for the benefit of today's and future generations.

- The projects have to be designed so that they restrict the negative impacts, which could damage the cultural heritage.

- The basic condition is to maintain the authentic monuments collections. The programs have to represent and interpret the authentic monuments collections, to support the understanding and valorisation of this cultural heritage.

- The tourist communities and local population have to take part on the tourist valorisation of monuments places.

- The tourist activities and the cultural heritage protection have to bring the advantages to tourist communities.

The Slovak monument fund is only a part of the material cultural heritage of the Slovak Republic. For example, more than 1000 châteaux and curia are known, but the law protects only 50% of them.

It is not possible, unequivocally to valuate the possibilities of monument fund application in the traffic on the basis of accessible information. It is possible to refer to some types of cultural monuments, which are appropriate for the traffic:

1) Monuments as the traffic aims.
For this group of cultural monuments, it is necessary to valuate their attractiveness for visitors and the possible impact on the physical substance of cultural monuments. It is necessary to determine such objects in the framework of regions, which are able to bear a more frequent regular attendance; it is possible to set the capacities and limits for others. We unanimously adjoin the localities, recorded in the Inventory of World Heritage, to this group. It is necessary first to consider their specifications and the duty resulting from the Deal in this case. For example, the multiple unregulated visitors number increase in the period after the registration (after the year 1993) affected unfavourably the life in the settlement Vlkolínec, which is very much vulnerable locality. So the necessity to connect Vlkolínec in the net of localities with the strict regulated attendance results in the case. On the other hand, the reserves are always in localities of municipal type (B. Štiavnica, Spišské Podhradie and Bardejov) from the side of the optimum traffic development; but it's necessary to create the providing of basic necessities, which are required by the single traffic categories, with the emphasis on the authentic respect of cultural monuments.

2) The monuments, which serve, alternatively they could serve for the purposes of services providing for tourists after the adaptation, as the attractive form of accommodation and digestion equipments, occasionally other coherent services with the possibility to combine these services with the community necessities and with other cultural establishments as: museums, ceremonial hall and so on.

The châteaux and curia are regarded as the still omitted part of monuments fund. Their suitability for the utilization in the traffic is based on their big untypical variability, which provides a non-repeatable experience, because they are often situated on the attractive places in historical greens.

The unused monuments are egged on the completion of the capacity of accommodation equipments, and especially those, which are in the private ownership, in the ownership of communities and towns and private companies.

The Institute of monuments preservation in Bratislava actualises annually the "Catalogue of cultural monuments presented for the sale" with the emphasis on the possibility of their utilization in traffic, with the aim to find the utilization for the monuments, which further stay without use.
(Please see www.pamiatky.sk)

3) Also the monuments, which are used in the other way and they are not accessible for the public, can be successfully attached to traffic, but their high artistic and historical value stays and they can further influence the esthetical feeling of a visitor and the intensification of his or her knowledge.

It is necessary to choose such objects and to consider their possibilities and the regime of opening to the public (e.g. Church objects) following the agreement of the owner.

The Resolution No 4 of the European Council of the year 1998 on Cultural Routes formed the common principles, topics and priorities, on the basis of which the cultural routes and they categories are created.

The traffic in Slovakia and especially the cultural tourism can use, by their development, not only the richness of monument fund, but of all cultural heritage of Slovakia with the emphasis on the protection of their authentic and regional individuality. Also the identification of cultural monuments with the road-information signs, for which a project waiting for the realization was created, serves for the better propagation and presentation of monuments. Up to now, the monuments are identified only sporadic on the basis of the aim of owners and communities.

The state supports also the presentation and propagation of archaeological localities in the framework of traffic and especially in the form of archaeological parks. The state uses the means of the fund Pro Slovakia for this purpose.

The non-governmental organizations, regional associations, municipalities (e.g. Šahy - Kláštor, Dechtice - Katarínka, Zvolen - Pustý hrad, Slovenská Ľupča - Kláštorisko, Liptovská Mara - Havránok, Letanovce - Kláštorisko) are of significant importance by the exploration and also presentation of archaeological localities.

6.4 Publications

The most significant publications of the Institute of monuments preservation from 1952 to 1999

1952
Monuments and museums - The journal for the monuments protection and museum troubles. Bratislava, Slovak institute of monuments preservation, 1952-/1960/

1960
The textbook of the Slovak institute of monuments preservation and nature protection (SÚPSOP) in Bratislava; Section of the monuments protection - The material of the I. Slovak Conference on issues of protection and documentation of folk architecture in Slovakia. Bratislava, Slovak institute of monuments preservation and nature protection, 1960

1966
Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 1
Bratislava, Obzor for the Slovak institute of monuments preservation and nature protection (SÚPSOP) 1966

HOBZEK, Josef - JANKOVIČ, Vendelín: The bibliography of the monuments literature in the Czech and Slovak Socialist Republic from 1961 to 1962
Prague - Bratislava, SÚPPOP - Slovak institute of monuments preservation and nature protection (SÚPSOP) 1966

1967
Inventory of monuments in Slovakia, Part 1, A - J
Bratislava, Obzor for SÚPSOP 1967

Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 4
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1967 - 1968

1968
HOBZEK, Josef - JANKOVIČ, Vendelín: The bibliography of the monuments literature in the Czech and Slovak Socialist Republic in the year 1965
Bratislava, Obzor for SÚPSOP 1968

Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 2
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1968

The Mikuláš Conference on state monuments preservation in Slovakia
Liptovský Mikuláš, 4th - 6th June 1968, the textbook
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1968

Inventory of monuments in Slovakia, Part 2, K - P
Bratislava, Obzor for SÚPSOP 1968

1969
Inventory of monuments in Slovakia, Part 3, R - Ž
Bratislava, Obzor for SÚPSOP 1969

Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 5
Bratislava, Pallas for SÚPSOP 1969

1970
Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 6
Bratislava, Pallas for SÚPSOP 1970

HOBZEK, Josef - JANKOVIČ, Vendelín: The bibliography of the monuments literature in the Czech and Slovak Socialist Republic in the year 1967
Martin, Osveta for SÚPSOP 1970

KUTLÍK, František: The instruction proposal for the elaboration of the Act on the Cultural Monuments
Study materials of the Institute
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1970

Movable monuments of the Middle-Slovak Region
Banská Bystrica, SÚPSOP, the center in Banská Bystrica /1970/

1971
KUTLÍK, František: Organs of monuments preservation - Study materials of the Institute
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1971

FRICKÝ, Alexander: The terminology of the movable cultural monuments recorded in state lists in Slovakia
Study materials of the Institute
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1971

1972
KUTLÍK, František: The criminal responsibility in the monuments preservation
Study materials of the Institute
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1972

Deal on the means of prohibition and prevention of unallowable export and of ownership transfer of cultural values - Study materials of the Institute
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1972

The international regulation for the monuments protection, their collections and historical settlements - Study materials of the Institute
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1972

The proposal for the agreement related to the world cultural and natural heritage protection
Study materials of the Institute
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1972

1974
The Inventory of monuments of the Slovak National Uprising
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1974

1975
The Inventory of monuments of the liberation
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1975

Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 9 Symposium ICOMOS in the Czech and Slovak Socialist Republic in 1971
Bratislava, Obzor for SÚPSOP 1976

FRICKÝ, Alexander: The protection and security of cultural monuments. The expert-methodical document set according to the lecturers of the seminar on 24th - 25th March 1976 in Bardejov
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1976

KUTLÍK, František: The valorization of the valid legal norms of the monuments preservation.
Study materials of the Institute
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1976

Symposium in the Czech and Slovak Socialist Republic in 1976 - The recommendations adopted on the international symposium "The New Life in the Historical Settlements"; Prague - Bratislava, 30th September - 5th October 1976
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1976

1978
The monuments in Slovakia, Part 4
Bratislava, Obzor for SÚPSOP 1978

The castles and palaces in the country;
The cultural monuments of the Middle-Slovak region - The catalogue of the exhibition
Banská Bystrica, KSŠPSOP 1978 - 1979

1981
The jubilee textbook; 30 years of the Slovak Institute of monuments preservation and nature protection in Bratislava
Bratislava, Obzor for SÚPSOP 1981

JANKOVIČ, Vendelín: The bibliography of the monuments literature in the Slovak Socialist Republic from 1968 to 1975
Martin, Osveta for SÚPSOP 1981

ŠUJANOVÁ, Oľga: The surface finish of the monuments objects - The seminar of SÚPSOP, on 28th - 30th October 1980; Opatová
Bratislava, the State institute of monuments preservation 1981

ŠUJANOVÁ, Oľga - MIRZOVÁ, Marta: The recommendations for the protection of the wooden constructions of monuments objects
Bratislava, SÚPSOP 1981

1982
The monuments protection; International deals, recommendations, charters and resolutions;
Arranged by Oľga ŠUJANOVÁ
Bratislava, the State monuments preservation center 1982

1983
The monuments preservation of folk architecture and technical monuments; Study news;
Bratislava, Príroda for State institute of monuments preservation 1983

The protection and utilization of the historical green in Slovakia; Study news;
Bratislava, Príroda for State institute of monuments preservation 1983

1984
Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 11
Bratislava, Obzor for State institute of monuments preservation 1984

The international colloquy on the monuments preservation aimed at the folk architecture in dependence of urban troubles - The guide
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1984

1985
LIPTAY, Jaroslav: The principles and methods of the rescue and regeneration of the historical cores of cities; Study news;
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1985

1986
Construction technologies and monuments presentation in Slovakia; Study news;
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1986

The legislative forms of the protection of historic urban collections in the socialistic countries; Study news;
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1986

1987
The rescue of the roof constructions; Study news;
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation in Videopress MON 1987

Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 12
Bratislava, Obzor for State institute of monuments preservation 1987

PETRAS, Ivan - HAĽAMA, Slavo: The Poprad region - the treasury of architectonic monuments
Prešov, KÚŠPSOP 1987

1988
Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 13
Bratislava, Obzor for State institute of monuments preservation 1988

The protection of mining technical monuments in Slovakia; Study news;
Bratislava, Alfa for State institute of monuments preservation 1988

MLYNKA, Ladislav: Production and technical objects in the folk construction; Study news;
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1988

1989
The rescue of vertical and horizontal constructions of monuments objects; Study rumors;
Arranged by Dušan TESÁK, Eng. Arch.
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1989

LIPTAYOVÁ, Zuzana: The professional-methodical principles of the rescue, maintenance, renewal and utilization of the folk architecture objects for the individual recreation, for free and bound traffic; Study news
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1989

1990
FRICKÝ, Alexander: The dictionary of the unified names of movable monuments registered in the General Inventory of the Cultural Monuments of Slovak Socialistic Republic
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1990

DVOŘÁKOVÁ, V. - LALKOVÁ, J. - TÓTHOVÁ, Š. - ZÁLEŽÁKOVÁ, G.: Levoča - The municipal monuments reservation
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1990

UŠÁKOVÁ, Mária: Ždiar - Monuments reservation of folk architecture
Bratislava, State institute of monuments preservation 1990

1991
Bardejov - The city monuments reservation. The referee: Jarmila LALKOVÁ, Eng. Arch.
Bratislava, Slovak institute of monuments preservation 1991

1992
Gemer - The traffic perspectives in the area - Monuments
Rožňava, Slovak institute of monuments preservation, Rožňava center in co-operation with the advertising agency ProArtDesign
Martin 1992

1995
KODOŇOVÁ, Mária - TÓTHOVÁ, Štefánia: The Beckov castle - The results of national cultural monument exploration
Bratislava, Institute of monuments preservation 1995

Banská Štiavnica - World Cultural Heritage; arranged by Viera DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Štefánia TÓTHOVÁ
Bratislava, Institute of monuments preservation 1995

JANKOVIČ, Vendelín: University in Trnava
Bratislava, Institute of monuments preservation 1995

Monumentorum tutela - Monuments protection, Part 13
Bratislava, the National monuments and country center,
Slovak institute of monuments preservation 1996

The world cultural and natural heritage
Bratislava, the National monuments and country center,
Slovak institute of monuments preservation 1996

1997
The monuments of Trnava and Trnava region - The textbook of the seminar of the days of the European Cultural Heritage; arranged by Jaroslava ŽUFFOVÁ
Trnava, Ján Koniarko Gallery 1997

1998
BOTÍK, J. - RUTTKAY, M. - ŠALKOVSKÝ, P.: The folk architecture and urbanization of the country settlements in Slovakia from the point of view of the newest knowledge of archeology and ethnography.
Bratislava, Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic, the National monuments and country center, published by Academic Electronic Press Ltd, 1998

Folk Architecture in Slovakia; arranged by Gabriela HABÁŇOVÁ, Jaroslav LIPTAY and the collective of Institute of monuments preservation
Bratislava, Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic, National Protection and Landscape Center, 1998

Renovatio. The periodical about the problems of the theory and practice of cultural monuments restoration

1998
Bratislava, the National monuments and country center, the State restoration ateliers, 1998

1999
The monuments and museums - Revue for the cultural heritage; Established in 1952
Bratislava, Slovak National Museum - the Institute of monuments preservation 1991 - 2002
In 1999 four numbers were published, the second of which was devoted to the Romanesque monuments in Slovakia.

Arkáda. The intern bulletin of the Institute of monuments preservation Bratislava
Rožňava, Institute of monuments preservation, workplace Rožňava 1999

I have a monument, what shall I do?
The brief guide for the cultural monuments owner

Vademecum of the owner
The guide for the advanced cultural monument owner

7.1 Changes in the number of protected sites

Registered monuments in Slovakia (1st January 2000 - after Institute of Monuments preservation in Bratislava The General Inventory of Cultural Monuments):

Architecture 7,515
Gardens, Parks 333
Technology (immovable) objects 451
Archaeological sites 340
Rural architecture 1,821
Others 2,215 (V and H)

Church furnishing (movables) 30,047

On 1st January 1963 the number of immovable objects protected as cultural (historic) monuments was about 30,000 units, listed: 0
On 1st January 1980 listed: 8,964
On 1st January 1988 (new law) were protected only listed monuments: 11,179 units
On 1st January 1990 listed: 12,443
On 1st January 2000 listed: 12,675
From 1990 to 2000 the annual rate of monuments in protection represents 114 listings in average.

The proportion of owners 1990 - 2000

Form of proprietorship 1990
% 2000
%
State 36 16
Municipalities 20 24
Church 20 23
Juridical persons 0 8
Physical persons 24 29

Protected area, protected zone
On 31st December 2000 Protected area: 28
Protected zone: 88
Protected Sites in WHL: 4 cultural 1 natural

The representation of immovable monuments according to the types on 31st December 2000:
- Architectural monuments 7,515
- Monuments of folk architecture 1,821
- Historical monuments 1,397
- Monuments of historical greens 333
- Archaeological monuments 340
- Technical monuments 451
- Monuments of art 818
- Total 12,675

The full-value part of the monuments fund is also the archaeological finding-places. The archaeological discoveries and localities are declared the cultural monuments and territories and admittedly also the presumed and non-open archaeological discoveries, which were identified through methods and technologies of archaeological exploration. At present, the archaeological localities represent 283 cultural monuments (340 monuments objects primarily, 138 monuments objects secondarily) in the General Inventory of the Cultural Monuments of Slovakia. 23 archaeological localities are presented and open among archaeological localities declared the cultural monuments. Archaeological finding-places are protected also in the framework of monuments reservation, monuments zones and in the localities of world cultural heritage.

The note: archaeological finding-places, which are not declared the cultural monuments, are recorded by the Archaeological Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences with the amount of ca 30,000.

7.2 Nature of the protected sites

Nature of legislation divides movable part of heritage under various institutions' supervision, Museum, National library, Gallery, Archive, …

The movable monuments in the property of the state (the objects in archives, museums or libraries under State Treasury or other legal entities administration), and non-registered private collections are not included in the Register of Monuments.

7.3 Type of ownership

The proportion of owners 1990 - 2000:

Form of proprietorship 1990
% 2000
%
State 36 16
Municipalities 20 24
Church 20 23
Juridical persons 0 8
Physical persons 24 29

7.4 Tourism and the heritage

It is necessary to engage the cultural heritage of Slovakia in the Middle-European coherences. One of the possible forms is the modelling of cultural tourism routes, by using of the net connection from the attractive and known objects and localities towards the unknown. We propose two basic programs: the program for Slovakia and international program.

Program for Slovakia:

a) Existing routes
- Gothic route
- Summer route - the mount at 101 castles and palaces in Slovakia
b) Proposed routes
- Monuments reservations in Slovakia
- Mining cities in Slovakia
- Folk architecture jewels
- Wooden churches in Slovakia
- Technical unique in Slovakia
- Architectonic and artistic heritage of Spiš
- Middle Ages in East Slovakia
- Painting groundwork in Gemer
- Middle-European baroque in Slovakia

The international program - proposed routes
- Romans on Danube River
- Middle-European gothic woodcarving and the work of mister Pavol
- The renaissance in Spiš
- East-Slovak wooden churches
- Wandering misters in Gemer - Middle-Ages wall art
- The Habsburgs and Slovakia
- The European route of saint Elisabeth Durínska

The most visited museums and galleries in object, which are the cultural monuments at the same time:

Bojnice Museum 200,000 (annually)
Orava Castle - National cultural monument 155,000
Betliar Museum 155,000
Červený Kameň Častá Museum 151,000
Strečno Castle - National cultural monument 148,000
Spiš Castle - National cultural monument 137,000
Devín Castle - National cultural monument 129,000
Banská Štiavnica Mining Museum 113,000
Trenčín Castle - National cultural monument 105,000
Bratislava Castle - National cultural monument 70,000

The number of visitors of Slovak museums fluctuated around 3,500,000 annually from 1995 to 2000.

7.5 Other data

For detailed information visit the web site of the Institute of Monuments preservation in Bratislava: http://www.pamiatky.sk or uzkp@pamiatky.sk or web site of Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic http://www.culture.gov.sk

The authors, sources and resources for the elaboration of single chapters:
1. KOSOVÁ Katarína
2. ŠKOVIERA Ľuboslav
3. REJTHÁR Rudolf, TAHY Alexej
4. ŠKOVIERA Ľuboslav, DVOŘÁKOVÁ Viera
5. ŠEVČÍKOVÁ Eva, DVOŘÁKOVÁ Viera
6. Textbook of the conference Routs of Heritage (Rožňava from 3rd to 5th December 1998):

KOSOVÁ, Katarína: Slovakia and the cultural routes in Middle-Europe. In: Culture and traffic. The textbook of the science conference; Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, Faculty of Economy, 2001, pages 65 - 71

VELASOVÁ Ľubica: The utilization of châteaux and curia in the traffic. In: Culture and traffic. The textbook of the science conference; Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, Faculty of Economy, 2001, pages 41 - 45.
6.4. MOJŽIŠOVÁ Halina
7. ŠKOVIERA Ľuboslav

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